What is the bravais lattice made of chitin

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States of order and transformation phenomena in solid high polymer materials

edited by H. A. Stuart

Table of Contents

  • First part. States of order.
  • First Chapter: Precursors of the Crystalline Order.
  • Preliminary remark.
  • § 1st order in low molecular weight liquids (Stuart).
  • § 2nd order in mesomorphic melts and soap solutions (Kast).
  • a) Definitions.
  • b) The nematic state.
  • c) The smectic state.
  • § 3rd order in solutions and melting of thread molecules (Stuart).
  • § 4. Mesomorphic structures in high polymers (Kast).
  • Summarizing presentations for Chapter I.
  • Second chapter: Fundamentals of the theory of X-ray scattering of crystal lattices and liquids.
  • A. The X-ray scattering of gases and liquids.
  • § 5. The X-ray scattering of electrons and atoms.
  • § 6. The X-ray scattering of bodies amorphous with liquids.
  • B. X-ray scattering on crystal lattices.
  • § 7. The systematics of the crystals.
  • a) General.
  • b) The systematics of the crystal forms.
  • 1. The indication of the crystal faces.
  • 2. The 7 crystal systems.
  • 3. The symmetry harvest.
  • 4. The 32 crystal classes.
  • c) The systematics of the crystal lattice.
  • 1. Network levels.
  • 2. The unit cell.
  • 3. The 14 Bravais grids.
  • 4. The 230 room groups.
  • § 8. The location of the interference.
  • a) The lattice fector.
  • b) The Laue and Bragg interference conditions.
  • c) The lattice parameters.
  • d) Elementary volume and X-ray density.
  • § 9. The intensities of the reflexes.
  • a) The Lorentz factor.
  • b) The structure factor.
  • c) The complete crystal model (trial-and-error method).
  • d) Crystal structure determinations by Fourier analysis.
  • C. X-ray scattering of polycrystalline, disturbed and partially crystalline systems.
  • § 10. The widths of the interference.
  • a) Particle size and distortion broadening.
  • b) Paracrystals.
  • § 11. Meridian reflexes and stripes of stripes.
  • a) Meridian reflexes.
  • b) stripes of layer lines.
  • c) long period interference.
  • d) Four point diagrams.
  • § 12. Small-angle scattering.
  • a) Particle scattering of dilute systems.
  • 1. General.
  • 2. Diluted lamella packs (highly swollen cellulose).
  • 3. Ellipsoids of revolution.
  • b) Interfering scattering of packed systems.
  • 2. Tightly packed lamellas (low-swollen cellulose).
  • 3. Gels and powders.
  • Third chapter: General structural properties of fully crystalline and amorphous solid high polymers.
  • § 13. Thread and network structures in crystal lattices.
  • a) General information about fully crystalline high polymers.
  • b) High polymer elements in fully crystalline states.
  • 1. Thread and ring structures.
  • 2. Layer structures.
  • 3. Spatial network structures.
  • c) High polymer compounds in fully crystalline states.
  • d) Fully crystallized compounds with high polymer complexes ..
  • § 14. Thread and network structures in amorphous-solid states.
  • a) General information on amorphous-solid high polymers.
  • b) High polymer elements in amorphous-solid states.
  • c) High polymer compounds in amorphous-solid states.
  • 2. Network structures.
  • d) Amorphous solid states of compounds with high polymer complexes.
  • e) Comparison between fully crystalline and amorphous-solid polymer structures.
  • Chapter Four. Lattice structure of the high polymer fabrics.
  • § 15. On the method of X-ray analysis for polycrystalline specimens (discussed using the example of cellulose) (Kratky and Porod).
  • § 16. Lattice provisions on polysaccharides, chitin and rubber (Kratky and Porod).
  • a) The polymorphic modifications of fine cellulose and its hydrates.
  • b) derivatives of cellulose.
  • c) chitin.
  • d) strength.
  • e) rubber, gutta-percha and balata.
  • 1. Rubber.
  • 2. Gutta-percha and balata.
  • § 17. Lattice determinations on proteins and synthetic polypeptides (Kratky and Porod).
  • a) Overview.
  • 1. Polypeptide chain.
  • 2. The relationship between corpuscular proteins and fiber proteins.
  • 3. Classification of proteins according to the type of X-ray image.
  • 4. Silk fibroin and ß-keratin.
  • b) The? -form of the K-M-E-F group.
  • 1. The older structural proposals.
  • 2. The construction of the helix models according to Pauling and Corey.
  • 3. The meridian reflexes of the? -Helix.
  • 4. The layer line reflexes of the? -Helix.
  • 5. Further reasons for and against the helix structure.
  • c) The collagen group.
  • d) Protein single crystals.
  • 1. Notes on the method.
  • 2. Notes on some results.
  • § 18. Lattice provisions on synthetic high polymers (Kratky and Porod).
  • a) polyvinyl derivatives.
  • b) polyether.
  • c) polyester.
  • d) polyamides.
  • e) polyurethanes.
  • f) Other synthetic high polymers.
  • § 19. On the problem of the connection between the molecular shape in the lattice and the ultra violet dichroism (Kratky and Schauenstein).
  • Editor's note.
  • Fifth chapter: supermolecular order states in systems with crystallizing thread molecules.
  • Introductory remarks (Stuart).
  • A. Shape and size of the crystalline areas (Kratky and Porod).
  • § 20. The existence of uniformly ordered areas (“micelles”, “crystal lite”).
  • a) The natural fibers.
  • 1. The phenomenon of higher orientation.
  • 2. The constancy of the “crystalline” part in regenerated cellulose of all swelling states.
  • 3. The correspondence of the absolute amounts of the "crystalline" portion of cellulose determined by various methods.
  • 4. Small-angle X-ray scattering in regenerated cellulose as a function of the imbibition agent.
  • b) The existence of uniformly ordered areas in synthetic fibers.
  • §21. The size of crystalline areas from the wide-angle X-ray interference.
  • a) The line width method.
  • b) Determination of the crystallite size from deviations from Bragg's law.
  • § 22. The size of the crystalline areas from the diffuse small-angle X-ray scattering of densely packed systems.
  • a) The effect of interparticle interference.
  • b) Special small-angle X-ray results on various natural fibers.
  • § 23. The interpretation of the sharp small-angle interferences on the meridian.
  • a) Natural fibers.
  • b) Sharp meridian interference in synthetic fibers.
  • c) Special results for synthetic fibers.
  • 1. polyamides.
  • 2. Polyurethanes.
  • 3. polyester.
  • 4. Polyvinyl derivatives.
  • § 24. Electron microscopic examinations.
  • B. Crystalline and non-crystalline part (Kast).
  • Problem.
  • § 25. Methods of determination.
  • a) The radiometric methods.
  • 1. Comparison of the diffuse blackening of different images.
  • 2. Comparison of reflex and background on the same recording.
  • b) The volumetric methods.
  • c) The calorimetric methods.
  • d) Atomic and molecular physical methods.
  • e) The elastometric method for rubber-elastic fabrics.
  • f) The reaction methods of cellulose fibers.
  • 1. Chemical methods.
  • 2. Physical methods.
  • § 26. Results.
  • a) rubber.
  • 1. Radiographic results.
  • 2. Volumetric results.
  • 3. Elastometric results.
  • b) polyethylene.
  • 1. Radiometric results.
  • 2. Volumetric measurements.
  • 3. Calorimetric measurements.
  • c) Halogen derivatives of polyethylene.
  • d) polyester.
  • e) polyamides.
  • f) cellulose.
  • 2. Volumetric results.
  • 3. Calorimetric results.
  • 4. Results of the accessibility measurements.
  • C. Orientation through stretching and growth (Kratky and Stuart).
  • § 27. Determination of the crystallite orientation by radiographic means (Kratky).
  • a) The concept of statistical symmetry of polycrystalline objects.
  • 1. The statistical symmetry of the entire object.
  • 2. The symmetry in the behavior of the single crystallite.
  • 3. The multiplicity of initial orientations.
  • b) The most important types of crystallite orientation and their representation on the layer sphere.
  • 1. The complete fiber structure.
  • 2. The complete spiral fiber structure.
  • 3. The complete ring fiber structure.
  • 4. The partial fiber structure.
  • 5. The higher orientation or film structure.
  • c) The method of determining the orientation from the wide-angle interferences).
  • d) The measurement of the X-ray diagrams and definition of key figures to describe a crystal orientation.
  • e) Orientation determination from the small-angle X-ray scattering.
  • 1. General, use of the layer ball concept.
  • 2. Some typical examples.
  • 3. Double wedge or egg ?.
  • 4. The higher orientation and complex structures in the small-angle image.
  • § 28. Orientation and birefringence (Stuart).
  • a) The different types of birefringence.
  • 1. Deformation birefringence.
  • 2. Orientation birefringence.
  • 3. To distinguish between deformation and orientation birefringence.
  • b) The birefringence of an ideal, stretched network.
  • 1. Birefringence - elongation.
  • 2. To calculate the birefringence from the molecular constants.
  • c) Birefringence of non-crystallizing thermoplastics.
  • d) Birefringence in crystallizing substances.
  • 1. General observations.
  • 2. The determination of the average degree of orientation of the molecular chains.
  • 3. The degree of orientation of celluloses.
  • § 29. Orientation and ultra-red dichroism (Stuart).
  • § 30. Further methods of studying orientation (Stuart).
  • a) Anisotropy of diamagnetism.
  • 2. Observation results.
  • b) swelling anisotropy.
  • § 31. Geometry of the deformation processes in strongly swollen crystalline-amorphous systems (Kratky).
  • a) The idea of ​​the affine approach.
  • b) Affine axis orientation.
  • c) The generalized network according to J. J. Hermans.
  • d) leaflet orientation.
  • § 32. Comments on the mechanism of cold drawing (Stuart).
  • a) Characteristics of cold stretching for non-swollen bodies.
  • b) Molecular interpretation of the cold stretching of non-swollen bodies.
  • c) stretching and morphological structure.
  • d) stretching and crystalline content.
  • Summarizing presentations on Chapter V.
  • Chapter six: Morphological structures in natural fibers.
  • § 33. The supermolecular structure of cellulose.
  • a) term micelle; Size, shape and quantitative proportion of the crystalline areas.
  • b) Construction of the microfibril.
  • c) Existence and structure of the secondary fibrils (fila).
  • d) The texture of the native cellulose.
  • § 34. The morphological structure of other fibers.
  • a) Other polysaccharides and polysaccharides with amino sugars.
  • b) silk.
  • c) keratins.
  • d) collagen.
  • e) muscle fibers.
  • Second part. Crystallization and transformation phenomena.
  • Seventh Chapter: General Considerations.
  • § 35. Thermodynamics of transformation phenomena (Münster).
  • § 36. Molecular interpretation of the transformation phenomena (Münster).
  • § 37. Non-equilibrium states and time-dependent changes of state (Staverman).
  • § 38. The relation to visco-elastic behavior (Staverman).
  • Eighth chapter: Characteristic phenomena during the crystallization and melting of high polymers and their interpretation.
  • Crystallization phenomena.
  • § 39. Methods for the investigation of melting and crystallization (Jenckel).
  • a) Volume measurements.
  • b) Cooling and heating curves.
  • c) Mechanical behavior.
  • d) Optical methods.
  • e) Comparison of the methods.
  • f) Methods for measuring the rate of crystallization.
  • § 40. Melting and transformation phenomena in substances with.
  • Chain molecules (Stuart).
  • a) Rotational transformations in the solid state.
  • b) Further transformation phenomena.
  • §41. Observations on the finite melting range of high polymers and its dependence on the thermal history (Stuart).
  • a) The finite melting range for high polymers.
  • b) The dependence of the melt on the thermal history.
  • § 42. Influence of crystallization by pressure (Jenckel).
  • a) Melting point and pressure.
  • b) Application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
  • c) Crystalline part. Crystallization rate and pressure.
  • § 43. Influence of crystallization by stretching (Jenckel).
  • a) Experimental procedures.
  • 1. Melting point and elongation.
  • 2. Differences in heating and cooling.
  • b) Thermodynamic considerations.
  • 1. Differences in melting at constant stress and constant elongation from the standpoint of phase theory.
  • 2. General information about temperature, stress curves at constant elongation.
  • 3. Comparison with the observed curves.
  • 4. The determination of the crystalline antile.
  • 5. Application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
  • c) The Treloar experiments.
  • d) Rate of crystallization and elongation.
  • § 44. Influence of crystallizations by quenching, tempering and swelling (Stuart).
  • a) hypothermia.
  • b) Influencing the crystallization by tempering and swelling.
  • c) Influence of the small angle interference by annealing and swelling.
  • § 45. Spherolite formations (Brenschede).
  • a) Optical basics.
  • b) Morphology and growth of the spherulites.
  • c) Spatial arrangement of the chain molecules in the spherulite.
  • d) Thermal conditions of spherulite formation, nucleation numbers.
  • e) Degenerate forms of growth.
  • f) Conclusion.
  • g) On the question of the origin of morphological structures (Stuart).
  • 1. Helix model.
  • 2. On the question of the mechanism of crystallization.
  • § 46. The kinetics of crystallization (Jenckel).
  • a) Theory of the rate of crystallization.
  • 1. The idea of ​​Tammanks.
  • 2. Newer ideas; the rate of nucleation.
  • 3. The linear rate of crystallization.
  • 4. Crystalline proportion as a function of time (speed of total crystallization).
  • b) Crystallization kinetics of the high polymers.
  • 1. The extent of crystallization.
  • 2. The rate of total crystallization as a function of temperature.
  • 3. The total crystallization as a function of time.
  • § 47. Attempts to interpret the finite melting range (Jenckel and Stuart).
  • a) Influence of crystallite size and impurities (Jenckel).
  • 1. Different size of the crystalline areas.
  • 2. Low molecular weight impurities.
  • 3. Polymolecularity.
  • b) Kinetic interpretation of the melting process according to überreiter and Orthmann (Jenckel).
  • c) Configuration restriction and finite melting range (Stuart).
  • § 48. Statistical theories of crystallization and melting phenomena in high polymers (Münster).
  • a) The theory of Frith and Tuckett.
  • b) Flory's theory.
  • § 49. Melting and crystallization of the high polymers as a second order transformation (Jenckel and Münster).
  • a) The melting of the high polymers as a conversion of the second order Münster).
  • b) The melting or crystallization process of high polymers as a single-phase transformation (Jenckel).
  • 1. The possibility of single-phase conversion.
  • 2. The single-phase transformation in crystals.
  • 3. The melting process of high polymers.
  • Summarizing presentations on Chapter VIII.
  • Chapter 9: Crystallization and Molecular Structure.
  • § 50. Tendency to crystallize and molecular structure.
  • § 51. The molecular interpretation of the height of the melting point, the heat of fusion and the entropy of fusion.
  • a) The enema entropy in low molecular weight substances.
  • b) Melting point and entropy of melting in the case of movable thread molecules.
  • c) The dependence of the melting point on the molecular weight.
  • d) Relationship between melting point and other transformation points.
  • § 52. Melting point and constitation.
  • a) Alternating melting point and intramolecular order.
  • b) The influence of polar groups on the melting point.
  • c) The influence of substitutions and branching.
  • d) The effect of benzene rings and other groups in the main chain.
  • § 53. Melting points of copolymers.
  • a) General considerations.
  • b) Melting points of copolymers according to Flory's theory.
  • Chapter 10: The glassy solidification of high polymers.
  • § 54. Experimental evidence of a particular state of glass.
  • a) The reduced temperature coefficient of some properties in the glass state.
  • b) The constant viscosity of 1013P during glassy solidification.
  • c) Molecular motion and nuclear magnetic resonance.
  • d) strength and brittleness.
  • § 55. The essence of glassy solidification: a process of freezing.
  • a) General remarks.
  • b) Experimental evidence of aftereffects.
  • c) The speed of the volume aftereffect.
  • d) Volume aftereffect and viscosity.
  • e) On the question of the existence of several freezing temperatures.
  • 1. The material consists of 2 phases.
  • 2. The material consists of one phase.
  • 3. Freezing temperature and temperature of a damping maximum of vibrations.
  • f) The difference in entropy between the melt or glass and the crystal.
  • g) The process of freezing in a molecular view 633 § 56. A thermodynamic view of glassy solidification (Münster).
  • § 57. For the experimental determination of the freezing temperature.
  • Chapter Eleventh: Freezer Apparatus and Chemical Constitution.
  • § 58. Connection between the various symptoms of freezing.
  • b) Dielectric dispersion.
  • c) Dispersion of the modulus of elasticity.
  • d) Technological studies.
  • e) Influence of crystallinity.
  • § 59. Freezing phenomena depending on the molecular weight.
  • § 60. Freezing temperature and chemical constitution.
  • a) The influence of steric hindrance on the glass transition temperature.
  • b) The influence of polar groups on the freezing temperature.
  • c) The interpretation of the different dispersion areas for partially crystalline substances.
  • d) The influence of side chains on the glass transition temperature.
  • Directory of names.