What is the gross enrollment rate

The inclusion of Indian women in the national narrative has increased dramatically since economic liberalization in 1991

It is important for every Indian citizen to fully understand this as it has been a long and hard road to go that was fraught with political failures prior to 1991. At the time of independence, Prime Minister Nehru actively deprecated women's primary education as part of national education policy. Compare this with the much despised Chairman Mao, who famously said, "Women hold up half the sky" and made the girl's education a priority. The literacy rate of women in China is 96% - which contributes to greater prosperity and lower population growth - compared to an estimated 70% in India. A large part of these 70% will have to carry out economic liberalization and the subsequent globalization as well as a concerted digital advance. In the 1950s, shortly after independence, female literacy was barely 9%. Forty-four years later, in 1991, it had slowly risen to 39% per census. After liberalization, it rose to 68% in 2015, according to the National Family and Health Survey [NFHS-4]. To study the impact of women's literacy on the economy and demographics, it just needs to be correlated to the total fertility rate (TFR). Over the same period as the female literacy rate rose from 43% to 68%, the TFR fell from an unusually high 3.4 to 2.18, and trend lines suggest India is now at 2. We are officially below the replacement rates for emerging markets, which are tied to a TFR of 2.3. More importantly, this is entirely organic, not the result of forced population control and largely a result of the literacy and empowerment of women. PM Modi's “Beti bachao, beti padhao” program has also improved the birth sex ratio from 887 per 1000 in 2014 to 903 in 2017 per CRS data. Meanwhile, women have taken advantage of the new horizons open to them to study and build clear aspirations. Women's enrollment in higher education institutions has been 4.9% year-on-year since 2011/12, according to AISHE, while the enrollment rate for men has slowed to 2.5%. This dynamic increases every year; Between FY 18 and FY 19, the number of men increased nationwide by only 5,000, while the number of women rose by 7.5 lakh. Gross Enrollment Rate (GER), which is a measure of how many young people ages 18-23 attend college, shows that women overtook men for the first time in 2018-19-26.3, up from 26 , 4 for women. There is no longer any doubt that the Indian is breaking out with clear aspirations. The increasing enrollment of women in higher education is truly a Pan-Indian phenomenon. it transcends all perceived state, religious and social boundaries. Women's literacy generally increased by 24% from 2005 to 2015, compared with 9.7% for men [NFHS]. Every community has seen this, with the highest increase among Muslim women at 30%, followed by Buddhist women at 27% and Hindu women at 24%. That trend is spreading to college as well - enrollment for Muslim women increased 8.7% year over year versus 6.9% year over year for men between fiscal 13th and 19th. In almost all states, enrollment rates are higher for women than for men. Surprisingly, this also applies to northern and eastern states, which generally have a low overall GER. In Bihar, where the GER is only 13.6 - India's lowest - the number of women rose 4% year-over-year from 12 to 19 fiscal year, compared to 2.3% year-on-year for men. Large differences can be observed in Rajasthan with 7.4% (W) versus 2.7% (M) and in Madhya Pradesh with 6.4% (W) versus 0.4% (M) - on an annual basis from FY 12 to FY 19. We also see the same phenomenon in the southern states, where GER is above the Indian average of 26.3. Karnataka is 2.9% (W) versus 0.7% (M), while Tamil Nadu is 2.3% (W) versus 0.5% (M), again year-on-year between FY 12 and FY 19. Data show that women will soon overtake men in college, be better educated and dominate India in the future. In some areas such as MBBS, women have already exceeded 50% in the incoming classes and we may soon need a reservation for men in MBBS and other areas. Beyond Education Women take responsibility in all areas of the Indian socio-economic fabric. In science and technology fields such as biotechnology, life sciences, space, and others, many women work quietly on frontier innovations. The women of ISRO are a better known example and have been instrumental in India's spectacular space successes. This also applies to startups, where we see founders and co-founders of tech startups in almost all areas - e-commerce, fintech, artificial intelligence, life sciences, media, education, health and more. The ladders in India are also gradually filling up with more women. According to a study by Zinnov-Intel, Corporate India is now 30% women up from 21% in 2014. Women run Indian guns from some large multinational corporations and investment firms such as Intel and Omidyar. 40% of the engineering class are now women. As more and more women graduate with special degrees, it is imperative that they be promoted to suitable professions so that they can enter the world of work. Panchayat Raj was a sphere where women got their money's worth and carried out far-reaching reforms for their villages. What started as a 33% reservation and was later increased to 50% now has a life of its own. Panchayat women take responsibility for the development of their village and find new ways to make the citizens work. They are making the village energy self-sufficient by installing solar panels or wind turbines and bringing other women together in SHGs to work for the improvement of their communities. The number of female Sarpanchs is also increasing. We see a similar phenomenon in many areas - administrative services, political machinery, entrepreneurship, agriculture and milk production, manufacturing, etc. PROGRESS POLICY In the last six years in particular, during PM Modi's leadership, some of the most advanced women-friendly policies in the World introduced. The right to paid maternity leave has been extended to 26 weeks; third highest in the world. A paternity leave of 15 days has become the norm and shows the immense value that family unity has in our country. In addition, as of March 2020, Matru Vandana Yojana has granted 1.35 million women maternity benefit worth 5,000 rupees. The focus on family well-being was also broadened by the Indradhanush Intensified Mission, which dramatically improved the health of both mother and child. By June 2019, 86.88 lakh pregnant women and 3.38 crore children had been immunized. World Bank estimates show a significant decrease in IMR (36.9 per 1,000 live births in 2014 to 29.9 in 2018). A similar drop in MMR; The Union Minister of Health, Dr. Harsh Vardhan, announced that "India is on track to meet (WHO) sustainable development goal of lowering MMR by 2025, five years ahead of the 2030 schedule." In addition, the effort to provide 8 Crore women with clean water and free LPG bottles for smoke-free cooking and sanitation through Swacch Bharat has made an enormous contribution to the health and wellbeing of the Indian woman. India's digital push and use of India Stack with Jan Dhan accounts have carried out some of the most extensive one-swoop empowerment campaigns for women in the world. We saw this network only flourish in April 2020 when 20 crore women across the country received direct benefits from the Indian government to support their family during the Covid lockdown. Our women are no longer on the sidelines, they have come to terms with their lot. They participate in households, villages, cities and governments with renewed strength. CONCLUSION Although there is still a long way to go, today we are undoubtedly witnessing the rise of the Indian woman. The foundation stone has been laid. As more women seek opportunities, be it in the rural economy, in postgraduate employment, or in the cities, the country now needs to make sure that those opportunities exist. This is how we double our workforce, productivity and profitability. The future of India lies in our women.

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