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Use of the prepositions in Kallimachus and Herondas, compared with those in Bakchylides and the results already obtained for Pindar

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Use of the prepositions in Kallimachus and Herondas, compared with those in Bakchylides and the results already obtained for Pindar. Author: Pius Priewasser || Publication Data: Program of the K. k. Franz Josef-Gymnasium of the Franciscans in Hall ... More

Use of the prepositions in Kallimachus and Herondas, compared with those in Bakchylides and the results already obtained for Pindar. Author: Pius Priewasser || Publication Data: Program of the K. k. Franz Josef-Gymnasium of the Franziskaner zu Hall at the end of the school year 1902 - 1903 (Halle: 1903 - 1904) || For best viewing, download PDF. Less

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PROGRAM of the K. K. FRANZ JOSEF GYMNASIUM of the Franciscans to HAI. JL a rn S chl, sse of the school year 1902-1903. Published by the management. CONTENT: 1. The prepositions in KalJimachus and Herondas, compared with those in Bacchylides and the results already known for Pindar. From Professor P. Pius Priewasser. 2. School news from the principal. AV60000 H 174 - 1903 Hall. S e Jbs t ver Jag der L eh r a ns ta lt, 1903.

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Literature used: 1. HYlllni et epigral11l11ata: ed. N. Frischlinius. Basel 1589.: l. Kallimachi Cyrenensis hYl11ni et epigrammata: ed. Aug. Meinecke. Berlin 1861. 3. Kallillachea ed. Otto Schneider. Leipzig 1870--73. 4. Kallimachi hYl11ni et epigrallll11ata: ed. Wilal11owitz-Möllendorff. 5. Herondae Mimiambi. Ed. princ. from Kenyon. 6. Herondae Mimialllbi: ed. Crusius. Leipzig 1898. 7th translation of Heronilas v. Mekler. 8. Hekale des Kallimachus: ed. GOl11perz 1893. 9. Kallim. Studies by Wilh. Weinberger. Progr. Vienna xvn. Bez. 1895. 10. Bakehylidis carmina cum fragl11entis ed. Pale. Leipzig at Teubner 1898. 11. Jurenka: The newly found songs of Bakchylides. Vienna at Hölder 1898. 12. Bakchylides etc. Editio princ. v. F. G. Kenyon. 1897. 13. The prepositions at Pindar. Diss. V. Boßler 1862. 14. Cancer: The prepositions in Polybius in the contributions to the histor. Syntax of the Greek language. Würzburg 1882. 15. Bernhardy: Scientific syntax of the Greek language. Berlin 1829. 16. Kühner-Gerth: Detailed grammar of the Greek language, 3rd edition. Hanover and Leipzig 1898. Introduction. Well known to every philologist is one of the most celebrated poets of the Alexandrian period, Callimachus by name, whom we find at the time of his heyday at the court of King Ptolomaeus Philadelphus, busy with library work. Despite all the work and writing that the Alexandrine library prepared for him, he still found time to devote himself to the muse and to let his poetic vein run free. This gave rise to manifold poetic achievements, of which, to the great regret of many scholars, only a small part has come to us. Fate played no more than 6 hymns and 63 epigrams intact into our hands. The rest of what we still have are only fragments, the largest of which is perhaps the recently discovered Hekale fragment. Almost at the same time as Kallimachus, another Alexandrian scholar tried his hand at bound speech. This is Herondas, also called Herodas, who was born in Kos. His mimiambes, which were only found in an Egyptian grave in the previous decade and thus rose from the dead in the literal sense of the word, represent true scenes from life and are at the same time proof of the poet's mastery. Third in the group I rank Bakchylides from Keos, not as if he lived at the same time as the aforementioned, but because, like Herondas, England's enterprising sons, he was recently pulled out of a heap of ruins in Egypt. Doing this seems all the more worthwhile to me, since this is a 1 *

IV man acts who, fully conscious of his poetic talent, dared to attach titles to his person, without being contradicted by the ancients, such as / -lEAiYAcoaaoc; Krfla all ~) l () V or EuaiVETOC; KIl ia / -lEpl / -lva, or vaalconc; A1YUq> & OYYoC; / -lEAiaaa to call himself a man who could call himself a divine emissary of the muses and compare himself to an eagle, when all the bird population crouches when approaching - all expressions that would bear the mark of ridiculousness it is not in harmony with his poetic work. And what Bakchylides was aware of and was allowed to boast of, the old art judges agreed not only indirectly, but directly, by placing him in the canon alongside the greatest poets of antiquity and counting him among the best lyric poets of the same - a fact which is certainly of no small importance. Then none other than Sophocles followed him in dealing with Trojan legends. The tone struck by Bakchylides in the Silenlied can also be heard throughout ancient times. And as far as the Romans are concerned, they particularly valued our poet, above all Horace, who woven countless motifs from Bakchylides into his poems. As with Horace, so also with Bakchylides, wine and woman are objects of song. Hymns, Päane, Parthenien, Hyporcheme and Dythyramben owe their origin to him, although only very few remnants are able to make us happy. What particularly distinguished Bakchylides and what, if we can trust the news of the ancients, brought him into an unfriendly relationship with Pindar, were probably the Epinikien or those songs in which he, like Pindar and Simonides, won the solemn fighting games of Hellas, especially glorified his princely patron Hieron. Only a few of these songs, partly on Hieron, partly on other winners in the competitions, could show eager searching in our days of the world of philologists. These fragments of Bakchylides poems, as well as Herondas Mimiamben and the hymns and epigrams of Kallimachus together with the Hekale fragment will be the subject of the following investigation. The result of the investigation carried out on Herondas and Kallimachus should finally be compared with that which we received for Bakchylides, Bossler for Pindar. I am doing this investigation with all the greater pleasure, not only because I am convinced of the importance of the V prepositions in order to get to know the style of an author all the better, but also because I am allowed to look at two To be able to carry out the investigation that I had already loved during my university studies, of poets who have recently come to be known and who have recently become known. The highly esteemed professor at the k. k. University of Innsbruck, Prof. Dr. Anton Zingerle, to whom we would like to express our thanks for this as well as for the loving advice at this point. In dealing with the prepositions which appear in the poems mentioned above, I feel compelled to refer to the excellent example of Dr. Follow cancer and visit the so-called statistical area. For the sake of a better overview, I will split the whole work into four parts. In the first part, the prepositions occurring in Kallimachus in general and in particular are to be examined; in the second the same is said to happen to Herondas and in the third to Bakchylides. If there is a lot of boring repetition in the process, one can kindly excuse this. In the fourth part, finally, I will compare the results of these investigations with the results already known which have been found for Pindar.

I. part. Prepositions at Kallimachus. Cap. 1. General part. § i. Frequency. All prepositions taken together, which are found in the hymns and epigrams, as well as in the fragments of the hecals, without making any distinction, give the following impressive result: 1. EV: 84 2. Eni: 72 First frequency level: - ~ -_. _--- ~ ---------_. _--- - - - 3rd Eie ;: 38 4th Dm): 34 5th ano: 32 Second frequency level: 6th EX: 26 7th napa: 21 8th nEp {: 16 9th npoe ;: ​​13 Third Frequency level: 10. xara: 10 -----. . . _ --- _. ~. . _---------- ". _----. - - - - - - - - - - - - 11. aVIi: 8 12 ouv: 7 13. bta: 6 14. a / - ! q> i: 5 15. / -! ETa: 5 Fourth frequency step: 16. U1tEP: 4 17. Uva: 2 18. npo: 2 - - - - - - -. - - - Summa: 385

::::: ~ _ ~ _. c 2 _ =. ; . . . . , ~ ",.,;,,;" "" ", c" "". ,. T R F _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- - - - - - -. . . . . . , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 From this list it can be seen that Callimachus still uses the preposition EV most often; Eni comes very close to her, who already has the upper hand in the hymns; for EV is found only 60 times in the hymns, while Eni can be read in 62 places in them. It is thanks to the epigrams that EV has given him the first place in the poems of Kallimachus that have survived. As a favorite preposition, if we may say so, EV appears; but it is almost reached by Eni. But better said: EV and Eni are the darlings of Kallimachus. This would appear all the more justified if we consider their preferred position over the other prepositions. That Eni has such a high frequency with Kallimachus and, as it were, struggles for the first position with EV, should probably be regarded as a peculiarity of our poet. The number of verses in the poems of Kallimachus to be treated is 1424. On average there should be a preposition for every third or fourth verse. § 2. Ratio of the cases in the prepositions. It is necessary that we direct our attention to the case corrections themselves. From this observation it will appear that the dative still has the upper hand in connection with a preposition, but that it only owes it to the preposition EV when the ace. not reached in connection with prepositions. In order to be able to provide the proof for this, we look in the following to separate the prepositions after case a) prepositions with a case: a) C. gen. (3) c. dat. y) c. ace. 1. npo: 2 2. uni: 8 3. EX: 26 1. EV: 8 ~ 4. uno: 32 3. auv: 7 1. Eie ;: 38 68 91 38 b) prepositions with 2 cases: 1. a ) c. gen. u. ß) c. acc. Ir. a) c. dat. u. ß) c. acc. 1. xara: 0 10 2. bla: 4 2 3. unEp: 3 1 1. uva: 0 2 7 13 0 2 3 This combination shows that 2 prepositions have, so to speak, sunk to prepositions with an em case, namely xena never has the genitive in Kallimachus and never the dative. Perhaps this fact can only be stated in these poems by Kallimachus, but not in the lost ones; may the solution of this question be granted in the future through the discovery of new material! c) prepositions with 3 cases: a) c. gen. ß) c. dat. y) c. acc. 1. IlEra: 0 2 3 2. nEpi: 4 1 11 3. uWl i: 1 3 2 4. napa: 1 8 12 5. imo: 7 18 9 6. npoe;: 3 1 9 7. Eni: 9 29 33 25 62 79 Genitive, dative and accusative relate to one another roughly like 1: 1 4: 1 6. In this last table it should be noted in particular that the accusative is dominant and the dative falls short of it. Then it is worth noting that IlEra c. gen. does not occur at all, the dative in the prepositions nEpi and npoe; before the other two casus, especially before the accusative, almost disappears. The Schwin. that of the dative in nEpi is reminiscent of Polybios 1), \ velcher has also almost completely abandoned this construction. This also avoids the dative as much as possible in uno; Kallimachus, on the other hand, uses uno c. dat very often, which is also the case with Herodian 2). In order to be able to determine the total ratio of the 3 cases in Kallimachus, we must try to get to know the frequency results of the prepositions in connection with one of the 3 cases. We find at Kallimachus: 100 Genetive, 153 Dative, 132 Accusative. Accordingly, the genitive, dative and accusative are related to one another as 1: 1 0: 1 3. 1) Cf. Krebs pg. 7. 2) Cf. Rüger: Praepos. of Joannes Antiochenus. Progr. V. IV Inner City 1896. pg. 19. Herodian loves even more {mo c. gene.

This results in the following sentence: In Kallimachus the dative still has the upper hand; the accusative comes quite close to it in terms of the frequency number. This sentence is all the more important for us, since with Polybius the accusative, with others on the other hand, in the later grace, the genitive is given preference. Thus, in this respect, Kallimachus approaches Polybius. If we put the prepositions with the genitive in between, we get the following frequency table: 1. uno: 32 2. EX: 26 2. Eni: 9 4. UVt: t: 8 [). uno: 7 6th (Ha: 4 7th nEpi: 4 8th npoe ;:: 3 unEp: 3 10th npo: 2 11th u / -l

6 • oAoAuyaie:;. So here is repetition after TE-xai, which is very common, and after TE-TE. 2. With the disjunctive ~ and with ODTE-ODTE: V, 47-48: 11 e :;

The preposition is placed between attribute and noun: III, 21; II, 59; II, 112; III, 41; III, 47; III, 67; IIl, 76; III, 103; III, 107; III, 117; III, 1:> 3; m, 158; III, 192; III, 196; III, 239; IV, 41; IV, 42; IV, 126; IV, 152; IV, 210; IV, 234; IV, 264; IV, 312; V, 20; VI, 51; VI, 62; 1.6; 1.51; 1.48; 1.82; Ep. 21.1; 22.3; 47, 3; 50.1; 63, 2; Hec. IV, 10. The prepositions in post-positive position: Evi: II, 78; III, 138; III, 170; III, 207; VI, 54; VI, 63; VI, 91; VI, 111. Erd: I1I, 88; III, 264; III, 168; VI, 38. nEpi: III, 135. imo: IV, 66. ctno: I, 89. EC ;: Ep. 25, 4; 41, 3rd unEp: Ep. 53, 11. aV Li: Ep. 56, 2nd S 7. Hiatus. In order to learn the means that Kallimachus uses to remove the hiatus, let us consider the hiatus that arises: 1. When the final vowel of the preposition meets the initial of the following word. Here Kallimachus uses the following means: a) Elision: H, 17; 11.15; 11.30; II, 48: 1I, 79; II, 101; II, 105; II, 109; 1II, 21; III, 42; III, 48: III, 52: III, n; III, 93; 1II, 97; III, 100; 111.126; IIT, 168; III, 176; IIT. 191; III, 212; III, 232; UI, 2:36; III, 244; IV, 19; IV, 22; IV, 44; IV, 47; IV, 114; IV, 124: IV, 140; IV, 144; IV, 146; IV,! F) 2; IV, 157; IV, 158; IV, 172; IV, 174: IV, 176; IV, 202; IV,; mo; IV, 254; IV, 268; V, 9; V, 24; V, 91; V, 97; VI, 6; VI, 7th : \. ; VI, 75; VI, 82; VI, 101; 1.28; 1.38; 1.62; 1.63; 1.75; Ep. I, 4; I, 11; V, 12; XI, 2; XHI, 2; XXHI, 2; XLV, 3; XLVII 1; XLVII, 3; XLVIII, 3; LVIII,;); LXII, 2. 13) Post-positive position of preposition: ETrl: III, 88 and m, 264; nEpt: III, 13f); EVt: II, 78; VI, 54; VI, 63; VI, 91. r) interposition: 1.6; 1.51; III, 21; III, 114; IV, 120; VI, 5 :. b) Preference for \ 1 ort [forms with a consonant ending · in this respect I can only give a single example: IV, 169: f.! EXpte; önou. 2. To avoid the hiatus that arises when the initial vowel of the preposition meets the final vowel of the preceding word, Kallimachus suggested the following: a) Elision: 1.7; 1.17; 1.82; 1.89; III, 121; III, 131; 1II, 150; 1II, 157; III, 149; III, 168; 11.48; IV, 13; IV, 17; IV, 53; - n IV, 103; IV, 185; IV, 255; IV, 280; IV, 300; V, 8; V, 19: V, 40; V, 46; V, 60; V, 64; V, 111; VI, 4; VI, 10-11; VI, 15; VI, 86; VI, 89; VI, 92; VI, 123; Ep. I, 9; VII, 1; XIII, 1; XVIII, 1; XXV, 4; XXVIII, 3; XXXI, (j; XLI, 3; LVIII, 3; Hek. I, 8; II, 5; II, 7; II, 8; IV, 15. ß) Krasis: Ep. XXXIX, 2: oux IIEAa

10 CaPa H. Special part. § 8. Prepositions on the lowest frequency level. 1. 1i P 6. 1iPO agrees with avri in many respects, but leaves a more abundant development to 1) in contrast to avri because of its general meaning. In the poems of Kallimachus I could only find this preposition twice, namely III, 147 in local meaning: Ec5 rf \ XE 1iPO nov 1iUAEWV 1iOnbEY / lEvoC ;. The concept of protection and protection for the best of a person is closely related to the spatial meaning, so that 1iPO also corresponds to the German for, for the best, in the interest of someone 2). In our poet Iipo stands in this figurative meaning: Ep. UV. 1: TO; epo YUVatxoC; ßf \ / lobixf \ C; . , hEC5WV (OCPEAEV d) ~ Ct / lEVOC ;. 2. avCt. The basic meaning of this preposition is: above an, aut. In ordinary language, avCt is combined with the accusative, in epic language and with the lyric poets as well as occasionally in the choral chants of the tragedy with the localistic dative, for which EV is otherwise used 3) . ava c. dat. is nowhere to be found in Kallimachus, unless Ep. 48, 3 would not be accepted as a tmesis: EYCo b a ~ a Tf \ lbE XEXf \ VCoC; xEl / lat TOD L. u / liou bmAOov and avCt refer to the dative TfllbE. But I think I am more likely to suspect an adverb in Tf \ lbE. Otto Schneider also decides for this view, as well as for the tmesis (cf. Vol. II: avCt in the index). avCt c. acc, Kallimachus only has 2 places and it is in local meaning: IV, 280: al i ava / lEC5C5f \ V XA ~ POUC; EC5T ~ C5UVTO; VI, 82: EpUC5iX & ovu b llAuC5E XCt1ipOe; IIivbov av EUCtYXE1UV. 1) Kühner-Uerth p. 15t. ) Passow: Lex s. V. 1tpO. 3) Kühner, p. 4i3; Krüger § 68, 21. 11 3rd u1i Ep. According to its basic meaning, urrEp denotes the surface, but only a hovering over it or a soft touch of it I). c. 1. urrEp c. gen. stands in local meaning to indicate the movement over a place or object himveg: Kali. III, 107: urrEp rroTu / lolo CPUYODC5U \. But this construction also serves to denote the protrusion of one object over another, which it almost touches, like KalI. III, 59: ppatC5Tf \ pae; UE1PCt / lEVOl urrEp «() / lw \ ,. In a figurative sense, urrEp gets c. gen. almost the place of ani c. gen.; So urrEp comes to the meaning: "in the name, instead of a, fi tr a" - a meaning that is probably also used in Pind. Pyth. I, 32 finds, but is used especially by the later. Kallimachus has urrEp c. Gen. used in this meaning: Ep. LIII, 3: (0e; TobE VDV / lEV, aVUC5C5a, XOpf \ e; vrrEp, at which point urrEp comes very close to an aYTi, but is not quite synonymous, because again the This meaning appears all the more interesting in our example, since this must point us to the difference between U1iEP and aYTi because of the immediately following uni bi :: rratMc; 2). 2. U1iEP c. acc. Kallimachus uses local meaning to indicate a movement over an object: I, 2G: viC5C5ETO b uv ~ p 1iE ~ Oe; urrEp KpCi & h TE; eOAUC5nov TE MEn01if \ V Oil ~) aAEoc ;. 4. f, tETCt. This preposition has the basic meaning "in the middle, in the middle under". It combines: 1. c. Gen. In this construction we do not find f, tETCt in Kallimachus, but we do:!. C. Dat. This construction is only poetic and preferably property of the epics; in other poets it is seldom used to designate a purely spatial connection: with, among, between, both from friendly and hostile intercourse. The most common is / IETCt c. dat. Plur. of personal names, as well as I) Kühner p. 48t). 2) Cf. Hühner-Uerth: p. 486.

12 also of such words which designate parts of personal objects 1), such as KaU. TI, 86: aVEpEe; wPXrlO avTO / lETU ~ av. & ~ IO I 1 \ 1ßDO O me; and III, 73: / lET al xaAtbEO O I cpEpouO a. 3. c. ace. In local terms, / IETCi is c. ace. only poetic, especially epic, by name it is used to indicate a direction or movement: KaU, IV, 19: fl b om. & Ev

14 bAiyotl / lEYU bwpov; Ep. LIII, 4: aVTi bio: -eatboe; üon; pov Euwb le; ano Tl EXot; IV, 152: / l ~ Otl y EflEio: -ra & lte; xuxov ElvExu T ~ ObE avr EAE lfloOuV le ;. AVTi has causal meaning in the following places: KaH. IV, 22: oUOI bE fltV avr E :: nßa & pcov (propter naulum); Epigr. LVI, 2: CPllo1v () flE or ~ oue; EuuivETOe; V1X le; aVTl / lE 1b11le; ayxEio & at xaAxElOv aAExwpu TtlvbuplblltOt. ~ 9. Third frequency level. 9. XUTU. The ways of using XUTa can be traced back to the meaning "down". The genitive refers partly as the ablative genitive to the starting point of the movement "down from", partly as the actual genitive the goal towards which the action strives. The accusative originally denotes the space over which a movement extends. 1. xma c. This connection cannot be read in the poems of Kallimachus. 2. xma c. acc. The original meaning of this construction in Kallimachus is, so to speak, turning pale. Coming close to the German "through, through something", there is XUTa IV, 159: cpoßEovro XUTU ppoov, which Bentley reproduces: fugiebant per fluctum. So here xura stands for the indication of the place over or through which something goes, moves or is located. In this sense I also summarize IV, 176: XUT tlEPU ßOtlXOMovrat. In local terms, xura is still used to denote the neighborhood, such as KaU. I, 38: xur Ut TO KutlxWVCOV 1ITOAiE & pOV OtlflcpEPETat N lP ~ t and IV, 34: TUe; / lEV xmu stlOOOV nptl / lvo & EV Eppi ~ COOE (iuxta fundum translates Frischlinius pg. 37). In a figurative sense, xma stands for expressions of appropriateness like KalI. II, 28: xuru & tlflOV uEibEt; Ep. XLVII, 3-4: T ~ vbE xur EUX ~ V oco & Ele; E ~

IG (~ = um, for, over, because of, regarding): IV, 81: f \ ADWe; aO & / - laivovoa 7rEPI bpvoe;: Ep. LV, 3: EU; a / -lEva 7rEpi :: rmMe. 2. :: rEpi c. dat. Namely, in Kallirnachus it has a local meaning in connection with awpi: KalI. llek. I, 13: öooa rar aypworm :: rEpi r awpi rE 81l0E1 13aHov. 3. :: rEpi c. acc. In local meaning J: ur indication of a movement around something: KalI. 1.52: KouPllrEe; OE :: rEpi rrpUAlV roPXtloavro; III, 267: rrEpi [3COflOV xtJxAc0oao & m; IV, 251: ExvxAc0oavro AirrovrEe; Eßbo / -laXIe; :: rEpi ~! iAO V; IV, 300: OE / -lEV :: riopi r a / -lcpi TE V! 100 XUXAOV E :: r01110avro; IIJ, 248: :: rEpi ßpETac EUPU, s, E / -lE1AOV bco / -ltl & ll; III, 135: Tal () f. , s, tJcopov EivaTEpEe; yaAo; ol TE lIiav :: rEPI bicppa Tl & EVTaI. - Furthermore is :: rEpi c. ace. placed in the local sense in a verb of rest J: ur indication of the spatial distribution around an object: 1II, 49: :: rEpi / -lubpov EOTaoTae ;. In a figurative sense: rEpi c. ace. to indicate a physical or mental occupation, endeavor, or occupation with an object; cf. KalI. 1II, 158: / -lEyav rrEpl, s, 11pa 7rOVEtTO. In a hostile sense) or as an indication of consideration, rrEpi c. acc. are explained KaU, III, 122-123: 01 TE 7rEPI ocpEae; 01 TE rrEpi E, ElVOVe; aA1Ttl / -lova :: rOAAa TEAEOXOV. For more details on similar cases, see Passow J; U find8l1. According to Passow I, the direct effect on an object is denoted by: rEpi in conjunction with words that have a GesillnulllJ or. ~ ellle. Designate a manner of action or a procedure, mainly in connection with Elvm or yiyvEo & m and adjectives or abstract nouns, also in connection with :: rOlEtV and :: rpaTTE1V, corresponding to the German »against, an, also with«. VgL Xen. At. 7, G, 38: Cyr. 6,1,47; 8,8, 21: An. 1, U, 8; 1,4,8 etc. 12. :: rapa. According to its basic meaning, it denotes the closeness of things "with, next to" • 1. 7rapa c. gen. has a figurative meaning: Ep. XXXII, 4: TWV :: rapa OOU TOUT aVEpaoToTaTOv. 2. 7rapa c. dat. stands in local terms to indicate a quiet lingering near a person, poetically also a thing: Ep. LXII, 2: XEtTm EV OpTVyi1l1 To; a :: rap APTE / -llbl; \ T, 33: rrapa rol xaw, s, U / -llOe; lAa j \ T, 24: :: rap Eupc; nm; Ep. LXIlI, 2: XOl1) Cf. Pasww: Lex. IIl. Vol. P. 82: 3 (TIEpi e. Ace. 3 a). 17 / -luo & m 1j> vXPole; TOtObE :: rapa :: rpO & UpOle ;: [V, 2; 30: IL; El, s, llPl1TElpa :: rap lxvEOtv: IV, 182: :: rapa TpnobEoolV Ef1Elo. Rrapci c. dat. in verbis of movement, but always in consideration of the rest, which is the result of movement j such a case also seems to be in Kallimachus IlI, Hi; 3: rrapa bE OcplOt rrovAu vE / -lEo, s, m " Hplle; EX AEt / -lWVOC; a / -llloaf1EVal CPOPEOVOlV lOXU & oov TPlTCETllAov.VgL Horn. Od. 3, 37 j Xen. An. 2, 5, 27: Plut. Them. 5. In temporal meaning, rrapa c. Dat. used: KalI. I, 1: :: rapa orrovb! ilplv

~ 1U. Second} frequency level. 13th EX. The preposition EX or E ~ has the basic meaning "from". We use this preposition with Kallimachus mainly in local meaning to indicate the distance either from the interior of a place or object or from the immediate connection, contact, community of a place or object Verbs of movement, like II, 74: EX f. 1Ey OE L, napTI1 ~ EXTOY YEYOe :; Oibmobao llYaYE 0) l1pail1Y Ee :; anoxn0ty; II, 75: EX bE OE EhlPI10 oube :; APIOTOTO I1e; Aopumibl nap {- ) uo yo: il11; IV, 43: E ~ Eq) \ Spl1e :; aYIOvTEe: ;; Ep. 22, 2: TOV ainOAOY llpnaoE l \ uf.1CPI1 E ~ OPEOe: ;; III, 164: EX AElf.1cDYOe ; af. 1110af.1EYCtl; III, 150: WVPOy OT EX bicppOto f. 1aAa f. 1Eyay f \ Cl YE XAOUYI1Y xanpoy o1ilo & lbiOlO CPEPOt noboe :; aonaiPOYW; III, 196: 11ActTO nOyaTO:. np10) , 68: () bE bWflaTOe :; EX f. 1uxaTOtO EPXETCtl; IV, 22: EnEYll ~ aTO Kunple :; E ~ üaTOe: ;; IV, 33: YEp & E b EAaoC5ac; EX YEaTco \, eOXAloC5E; V, 50: l \ ~ El cpopßaicoy "Ivaxoe; E ~ OPECOV; VI, 29: TO b wm aAExTplVoV ücop E ~ af. 1apc iY avE & UE. The following also belong here: 11, 112: axpaaYToe :; aYEpnEl nibaxoe :; E ~ 1EP ~ C; oAiYI1 Al ~ ae :; axpov aCOTOY; VI, 86: EnEo E ~ lnncoy and III, 76: C5T1 j & EOe :; EX flEYaAoU AaC5il1e :; Ebpa ~ o: o xaITI1e; the latter passage Frischlin reproduces with the following words: pectore e magno Brontae hirsutas excerpsisti setas. I also count Epigram here. 47, 3: T1 jYbE xaT EUX ~ V C5co & E1C; E ~ etAoe :; because here, too, movement and effort are required to enable rescue from the cold water. Furthermore, EX has a local meaning in a compound of bEXEC5 & Ctl: V, 118: E ~ OPECOV aAaOY naib anobE ~ aflEyav. After all, EX is c. gen. used locally in the poems of Kallimachus in the verbs of seeing and observing to denote the place from which an observation is made. Vg !. IV. 126: ODpEOe; E ~ unaTou C5X01ill lY EXEl; VI, 7: EX YE (j ECOY EC5xElpaTo. In a figurative sense, EX stands for the designation of the origin and descent: I, 79: EX bio 6.1oe :; 13aC51A ~ Ee ;; Ep. 39,2: ODX IIEAaC5ycDy. 1 ) Like the verbs of walking and coming in Homer and other poets, the bloCe accusative stands for the designation of the goal towards which one strives. Friezes p. 3. 19 Furthermore, EX stands in a figurative meaning in a verb of hearing, experiencing: II, 45: EX bE YU Cl> oil30tJ il1Tpol bEbaaolV dya ~ AI1C51Y & avaTOIO. Furthermore, EX c. gen. used in passive and intransitive verbs by the author instead of uno; This is almost exclusively an Ionic use and is common in Herodotus, but seldom in Attic prose; here I would like to count the following passages from Kallimachus: IV, 5: 6. ~ AoC; b E & EAEl Ta npww (j EPEC5 & Ctl EX MOtJC5ECOV; IV, 165: aAAa 01 EX MOlpECOY ne; O (j SIAOf.1EVOe; & EOC; aHoe; EOTi; V, 120: TcDlbE yap aHa TEV xaplY f. E ~ Ef. 1 1EVEVYTl yEpa. Finally, in Kallimachus EX we find the following information about the substance of which something is made: 11, 63: bEl ~ taTO flEY xEpaEC50lV EbE & Ala, n ~~ E bio 13coflOY EX xEpaco \. 14. ano. Ano has the basic meaning: weg von, von. - ano c. gen. stands in local meaning in the verbs of movement to indicate the distance from a place or object; vgI. KalI. II, 110: ODX ano naYTOe; ücop (j OPEOtJ0t flEAIC50Ctl; m , 174: ~ A & EC; ano L, xu & il1e: ;; IV, 41: TpOl ~~ YOe; ano ~ ay & olO nOAIXVI1e; EPXoflEYOl E (j uPl1vbE; IV, 92: ano [lAEIC5T010 xa & Epno \; j., 174: a ( "EonEpOll EC5xaTocovwe; pWOCOYWl; IV, 208: ano XPl1flyaio xaTEPXETCtl Ai & to1ill0e ;; IV, 291: EYEIXay ano ~ ay & cDY Aplf. 1aC5ncDy; IV, 305: E1 ~ ano npoTo \ COY; Ep. 23, 2: 11AaT a (j "tl1PI1).. . ov TElXEOC :; Egg; AibI1Y; Hec. co !. 1, 8: to EMbpou Mapa & cDvoe; ~ COOY aycov TOV Tavpov; V. 8: TcDY abixcov 11 1 & ano YI1YEYECOY; IV, 264: XPtJC5EOto to OUbEOC; ElAEO I); V, 12: E (j oI13aC5EY xaAlY

20 Then uno stands in verbs of rest to denote the distance from a place or object; see Ep. V, 12: LfllSPVIlC; EO dv un AioAiboC ;; Ep. 43, 4: Ta bE poba CjJUAAol30AEUVta novbpoc; uno OTEcpavcov naVT EYEVOVW xa). ! ai. Serves in a metaphorical sense (mo to denote descent and provenance: Ep. 26, 1: Eixov uno O). ! tXPcDV OAtyov ~ iov. uno also serves to designate the cause from which a condition arises, be it a person or thing or a condition. This usage can be seen in Kallimachus in the expressions of naming, naming, being named: III, 205: Encovu). ! illv uno vU). ! CPIle ;; IV, 268: un E [J. Elo 6. ~ AtoC; AnoAAcov XEXA ~ OEW, t. Then there is uno of the whole, from which a part is entno: nmen: V, 46: nivET U7l0 xpavav). ! llb uno TcD nota). !CD; Ep, 28, 3: u; ro XP ~ VIlC; nivco; Ep, XLVII, 1: ucp I, \ C; äAa At rov EnEo- & cov, uno c, gen. In my opinion, at one point of the Kallimachus indicates the means by which or with which something is effected: III, 116: U7l0 bE cpAoyoe; f11j> ao nOIIle ;, At one point of the Kallimachus uno is used where we would rather expect a nEpl: IV, 94: EPECO n WPWTEPOV 11 uno Mcpvllc ;. Similar expressions are also Il. 22, 126; HdL -1.53; 7, 105 1). Finally, in adverbial meaning to indicate the manner, there is uno Ep, XLIII, 5:). ! a bal). ! ovae; OUX uno PUo). ! oU Eixa ~ co 2). 15th uno. The basic meaning of this preposition, in which the dative is by far predominant in Kallimachu's poems, is "under". 1. uno c, gen. Is used locally in Kallimachus to denote the removal of an enclosing object: V, 9: ucp äp). ! awe; aUXEvae; lnncov Auoa). ! Eva. IV, 144 l mo stands more for the designation of lingering or being under an object: - & Ep). ! aoTpm TE ~ pE). ! OUOlV ucp HcpalOTolo nupaYPIlC; Epya- & o). ! ou. I) See Passow Lex. Vol. 1 see V. UlIO p. 320, 3. 2) Cf. Schneider p. 432: mihi esse videtur "non illll11odemte, ergo nOn. Sine iusta causa coniectural11 facio." Nal11 pucr, uo <; "lllodulll" significat ut in Aeschyl. Choeph. 785 crrol; ofLEVOV pu &, uov, UlIO

22 () un oeppUV epUEa / -l0uvoyAl1va and Hek. col. IV, lr): a ~ wv TETprywe; l> n a / -la; av. In a figurative sense for the expression of submission, uno c stands. ace. 1,74: (0V uno XElpa YEw / -l0poe ;; T, 75: Ti b ou xpaTEOVWe; {m iC5Xuv; IV, 166: (~ ll uno / -liTPl 1V tXEWI; VI, 62: Enovw bEC5nonXctV uno XElpa. 16. Eie;. Eie; or Ee;, which latter form is very often found in Kallimachus, is nothing more than a modified form of EV, and so in fact also takes over in many dialects - occasionally also in Pindar and Kallimachus - EV at the same time the functions of Eie; in that it also takes the accusative of the goal in addition to the locative dative; Eie; denotes the same dimensional relationship that is expressed by the preposition EV, but not as a directionless "\ Vo?" as EV, but in the direction "\ Vohin?", ie to indicate a movement into the interior of an object or towards an object, in the immediate vicinity of an object, generally to indicate the achievement of a specific or limited goal 1).Eie;, used locally, is used to indicate the spatial goal: n, 75: ~ yaYE 8l 1pail 1v Ee; cmoxnC5lv: II1, 141: Ee; ßIOe; olxov EAauVEle ;; III, 168: Ee; naTpOe; bO / -l0v EPXEaI; JII, 246: Ebpa / -IE 2: upbtae; Ee; TE V0 / -l0V BEpExuv? IV, 289: btanAwouC5IV AßUVTWV Eie; aya & ov nEbiov; V, 48: i \ Ee; cDuC5ubEtav i \ Ee; A / -lu / -lwvav OIC5ETE; V, 61: 1 \ Eie; AAIUPWV EAauvOl; VI, 36: Ee; bio TO nxe; ßU / -laTpOe; avatbEEe; Ebpa / -lov aAC50e ;; Ep. I, 15: Ee; oixiov llYEW vU / -lepl 1v; TII, 122: egg; ab! xwv EßaAEc; nOAlv; IV, 47: / -IEC5ep Ee; A & l1vaiwv npoC5Ev ~; ao LouvtOv axpov 1 \ X {OY i \ V ~ C50l0 blul3poxov überan / -laC5Tov IIap & Evil 1e ;; IV, 195: XEivl 1v yap EAEUC5EaI Eie; E & EAOUC5av; Ep. XXIII, 2: l \ AaT acr tnpl 1AOU TEixEOe; Egg; Aib11V; Hel <. I, 6: VEU / -lEVOe; WC5T (~ JX1C5We; Ee; aC5Tupov; IV, 143: Eie; ETEPl 1V Bplaptloe; Enw / -liba XtvU / -lEYOtO; V, 40: KPEiov b Eie; 6poe; (QIX1C5aW; we would at this last point EV c. date; the moment of movement must be understood here as the predominant 1); el this is a mode of use that is particularly frequent among the later writers. With these, d :; takes on the meaning of EV. 1 ) Cf. Pape Lex. Sv d ~ U Jd cooler Gmmm. S 447 B. • 23 It seems not unusual to the Greeks ~ the verbs C5UAAEYEIV, C5uvayEipElv, aAi ~ Elv and similar with Eie; to connect as we say: gather in one place; Kallimachus also made use of this IV, 17: Ee; QXEaVOV TE xai Ee; TITl 1viba TE&UV aoni ~ ovwl. That with individual persons Eie; is used from Homer onwards only by poets. From Kallimachus I count here IV, 204: nEpa Eie; E / -lE and Ep. 41, 3: na EC; naibwv nUAIV COIXEW. Likewise, d:; to indicate that a movement is occurring towards a part of the body: Ep. XXV, 3: wue; EV Epwn öpxoue; / -l ~ bUvElv ouar Ee; a & aVUTWV. The meaning of this passage reminds me of similar passages in Pindar, in which Boßler 1) refers to a figurative phrase from Eie; has to think about; nevertheless] in the cited passages of Pindar this usage is as closely as possible with the primary meaning. On the basis of this remark by Bolller, I should like here, too, for a metaphorical meaning of Eie; decide and not for a purely local one. Eie is used to denote the extent; Tll, 11: Ee; yovu / -lEXPI xmDva ~ WVVUC5 & at. In a figurative sense then Eie stands; to indicate states in which one enters or gets into, like the German "in" or "zu"; this is where I calculate from Kallimachus: n, 8: Ee; xopov EVTUVEIV; VI, 72: Eie; EPU \ we; OUTE ~ uvbEinvla nE / -lnov; Ep. I, 6: Eie; U / -lEvatOV ayw. These passages just mentioned have a lot in common with the primary meaning of Eie;. Ep. Il, 1: EC; bE / -lE buxpu llYaYEv; Ep.XLIV, 6: Eie; TOV Epwm ßUAl 1l.Furthermore, Eie stands; in a figurative meaning in the verbs of sight to indicate the spiritual goal: V, 19: Ee; opEixaAxov EßAElpEV; V, 20: El3AEtjJEv bivav EC; blaepatv0 / -lEvav.Then Eie; is used to indicate Gemä13heit V, 127: Ee; bEov and Ep. 46, 5 to indicate consideration for something: TOUTO, bOXEW, X & Al / -l0e; EXEI / -l0VOV Ee; Ta: rOVl 1pa TCQya & ov.Finally have, vir Eie; also in temporal terms to indicate the temporal extent: V, 107 and VI, 64: Ee; UC5TEPOV; VI, 123: Ewe; b Eie :; aAAo epuAa ; El. 1) Cf. Boßler p. 3: Pind. 01. V , 14: Pyth. 1.70; III, 35.

24 8 11. First frequency stage. 17. En i. Earth has the basic meaning "on". This preposition overturns a variety of relationships like no other. It is natural that the basic meaning in causal and ethical relationships is often very obscure. The original meaning "to" emerges most clearly in the genitive and accusative, less clearly in the dative, where it is mostly used by a proximity. Here, too, the dative is in most cases a representative of the original locative; but it is there where - it designates the goal, the direction of a movement, to be recognized as a real dative 1). 1. Eni c. gen. is locally related to the designation of lingering on a high point or base: II, 91: eJT (l. ::; Eni MupwueJeJll :: ;; IV, 63: ~ flEVO ::; U1PllAtl ::; xopucptl :: ; S7Tl Gp ~ lXO ::; AYflou; Ep. XVIII, 1: oux Eni Ytl ::; S & UVEV .-- Eni c. Gen. Is also used for printing nearby: here, nearby: IV, 157: naeJlllcJlV ECP utPflA010 Mlflavwc; eJnEPxoflEVll flaAa nO: \ Aov c tnüpanEv; Ep. LVIII, 2: EUPi: eJ En aiYlaAou. - It "is then used to draw the movement or direction towards a place or object _ a use that also Homer already knows: 1.42: Eni KvcoeJolo cpEpOucJa 2); V, 60-63: c tPXa1cov dre Erd GEeJmEcov... i \ Eie :; AAlupTOV EAauvOl Ynncoc ;, BOlCOT

his hec. col. IV, 5; Ent nn; pov OUAOOV E ~ El; for here, too, there is talk of a spread over an object. More common than the accusative would be Eni c. gen. or dat.: TII, 12. 8: LCDV oubEv Ent CiCPUpOV op & ov aVEC1 r1l 1); because the construction with genitive or dative would make lingering too! denote a height or support point. Eni c. ace. to read in order to indicate the goal or a direction in a verb of saying: II, 105: 6 & ovoe; AnoAil. covoe; En ouam ACt & plOe; Eim :: v. Likewise, the prepositions Eni c. ace. talk: VI, 92: ETCb puyilll; 11, 40: EV aCi IE i; II, 59: xaAf) l EV Op ltlyilll; II, 77: EV bE nOAlll ~ f) XE; III, 142: EVt npofloAf) lCil bExovml önAa; III, 172: 1 \ EVt 1 \ iflVate ;; III, 222: EV v Albl; III, 235: Evl 1 \ ouCiOle ;: III, 238: EV nO IE nappaAilll ECPECiCOl; IV, 3: a i Vl1CiCOV lEpw laml Elv aAi XEIV t at; IV, 53: EVt novTOU xUflaCitv AlyalOlo; IV, 111: EV over lEXVa lEXECi & at; IV, 186: EV nupi; IV, 191: ECin blElboflEV1l nc; EV via Vf) CiO :; apalll; IV, 243: Evl CimAubECiCilV Epl1flOle ;; V, 57: A & avaia vUflcpav fliav EV noxa 8rlpate; nouAu n xai nEpl b ~ cpiAa lO [(iv EmpaV; VI, 54: cDl EVl balme; aiEv Eflole; E lUPOlCitV abllv & llflapEae; a ~ cD; VI, 63: cDl EVl balme; nOlllCiEle; VI, 84: EV aAil. 84: EV aAil . O lpiOle ;; VI, 86: EV VO & pul nOlflY1 afll & pEI; VI, 111: Tplonao MflOle; EVl XP11flam xE1TO; Ep. IV, 2: UflECOV yap nAdoVEe; Eiv Aiblll; Ep. V. U: EV ~ aM fl1l1CiIV; Ep . XIII, G: dv Aiblll; Ep. XXXI, 6: la b EV flECiCiCOl xdflEva; Ep. LXII, 2: XEI lat EV Op ltlyilll; Ep. XL, G: XtlnEflllC) Exdvcoy EUYrlPCOe; Evl XEpCiiV. Furthermore, 1. 7: lEU CiE b EV Apxabilll; I, 10: EV bE CiE I1appaCilllt PElll lEXEV. EV: I, 6: ZEU CiE flEv IbalOlCilv EV OUpECi {cpaCit YEVECi & at; I, 51: YEV lO yap E ~ amva ia I1avaxplboe; Epya flEAlCiCille; IbaIO (1Cil, rct lE xAdoum IIuvaxpa; III, 3: EV OUPECiIV Et! NuaCi & at; III, 37: xal EV nUCilllCilV ECioV lat AP lEfllboe; ßcoflol lE xai aACiw; III, 47: lOVe; flEV E lE lflE V i \ muP ll; III, 117: MllCicDl EV OUAuflncol; III, 257: EV AElflcDVl KaÜCi lpicol ECiWV; IV, 119: EV OUPECiI; V, 42: EV nE lpate ;; VI, 51: WPECiIV EV TflaplolCiIV; VI, 102: EV ocp & aAflOlCiI; VI, 114: EVI lptobolCiI xa & f) Ci lo: Ep. I, 10: ECi lPEcpOV EUpdlll: 1albEe; EVI lplobcol; Ep. XVII, 3: Eiv aAl nou cpEPE lal; Ep. XVIII, 1st: EVI nov lCOt vauv äfla xal 1) lUX11V dbEV; Ep. XVIII,: 3: EV Uypf) l; Ep. XXXI, 1: EV OUPECil nuvm Aaycoov blcpal. Being there, expressing immediate closeness, is EV Y, U read: VI, 60 : EVI bPllCil xaAxov acpEV lEe;. Even with verbis dcr movement, EV is set to indicate that the Zi eles and lingering there to be expressed: cf.) Cf. KühllPi ~ Hi

28 IV, 196: aY / -lEV Toooa MYOVTO ~ unETpEXoV dv aAl VflOot; VI, 53: / -l ~ Tot nEAEXUV / -lEyav EV xpot naE; w j Ep. 20, 3: ~ roElV yap UbEA 11! ~ napa t "ll). lßov IcDAXIOV E / -l / -l0P M & AOUj Ep. XIV, 2: OE XUP). l1 TOV o

11th part. The prepositions in Herondas. Cap. 1. General part. § 1. Frequency. Without making any separation of the prepositions according to Casus, Herondas has the following: First frequency level: 1. Eie ;: 34 1Ipoe ;: ​​25 Second frequency level: EX: 25 EV: 24 Third frequency level: 5. E1I! : 14 6. xara: G 7. 1Iapa: G 8. auv: 2 9. 1Ipo: 2 10. U1IEP: 2 Fourth frequency level: 11. / lEra: 2 12. a1Io: 1 13. aVTi: 1 14. ~ l1a : 1 15. uno: Summa: 146 Among this number of prepositions 3 are not to be found, namely the favorite preposition of the isocrate;) 1IEpi, as well as avci and a / lq:> i. In Herondas' first position there is no longer EV as in Kallimachus, but EiC;, which preposition will dominate in the later Graecitüt (1. The preposition EV itself has sunk from the first - 31 to the fourth post. We find another place in Herondas the npoe; so much preferred by Josephus: a peculiarity of the poet that needs to be emphasized. The preposition bi, which wrestles for the first position in Kallimachus, still has the stately frequency number 14 in Herondas in relation to the other prepositions and takes it the 5.Set in the frequency table. If we want to speak of favorite prepositions in Herondas, this preference undoubtedly belongs to the two prepositions Eie; and npoe ;. In Herondas, including all the fragments, there are 756 verses in which 146 prepositions occur connected with CasLis. So on average there is a praeposilion every 5th verse. With Herondas we have a significantly lower frequency of prepositions compared to Kallimachus, because with the last-named poet every third or fourth verse has a preposition on average, but here only every fifth. § 2. Relationship of the case. When we consider the case corrections, we shall be able to demonstrate that, in addition to the difference from Kallimachus, in whose poems the dative still dominates, the accusative prevailed in Herondas and that even the genitive in connection with prepositions Herondas can be read more often than the dative. We can therefore say what Krebs claims of Polybius 1), that the dative with prepositions is nearing its end, that the accusative and genitive have divided into the inheritance of the dative. In order to produce the proof of this, the prepositions may be eliminated according to Casus. a) prepositions with a case: a) c. gen. ß) c. dat. y) c. acc. 1. aVTi: 1 2. 1Ipo: 2 3. ano: 1 auv: 2 4. EX: 25 EV: 24 Eie; : 34 29 26 34 L) Cancer: The Praepos. at Polybios pg. 6th

32 b) prepositions with two cases: a) c. gen. t. xani: 3 2nd bla: 1 3rd ilJiEP: 1 5 c) prepositions with a) c. gen. ß) c. dat. 1. ~ nl: 5 4 2. napa: 2 1 3. npoe ;: ​​3 1 4. uno: 0 0 5. f. lETa: 1 0 11 6 ß) c. acc. 3 0 1 4 three cases: y) c. acc. 5 3 21 1 1 31 Genitive, dative and accusative behave, as can be seen from the table above, roughly like 1 8: 1: 5 1. This ratio characterizes almost exactly which case Kallimachus preferred. What must appear conspicuous in this last table is the strong prominence of the accusative in the preposition npoe ;. What was already mentioned in the case of Kallimachus is even more true here; the dative seems to want to disappear completely compared to the accusative; but also the genitive in npoe; shows only a small frequency in the Herondas poems. Of the other prepositions of this table, only the circumstance seems to me worth mentioning that uno is only found in one place in Herondas and that this one place belongs to a dubious fragment, which is why one can actually say: uno does not occur in Herondas at all, a sentence that deserves to be emphasized all the more because uno occurs in no fewer than 34 places in Kallimachus and helps the dative to determine its preferred position. In order to recognize the relationship of the 3 cases to each other in full generality, it is our task to determine how often the genitive, dative and accusative occur in connection with prepositions. We get the following result: 45 Genetive, 32 Dative, 69 Accusative. Hence the conclusion; • 33 Genitive, dative and accusative relate to each other roughly like 1: 0 7: 1 5. We can thus set up the sentence: In Herondas, of the 3 cases in prepasitions, the accusative predominates - a peculiarity which Herondas shares with Polybius. If we put together the prepositions in which the genitive is used, we get the following frequency table: 1. EX: 25 2. Enl: 5 EX is far from here3. npoe; : 3 most outstanding representatives of the Gene4. xaTa: 3 tivs. This preposition also has 5th napa: 2 in Kallimachus an excellent 6th npo: 2 position. But the preposition, 7. avd: 1, which in Kallimachus has the first position with regard to 8. ano: 1 of the genitive 9. blah: 1 takes - namely ano - has He10. f. lETa: 1 rondas in connection with the gel. U1tEP: 1 effective only in a single place. 45 If we put together the prepositions in which the dative is, we get the following table: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. EV: 24 We see from this combination that Eni: 4 the dative is actually only protected by EV . ouv: 2 ouv, which plays a main role in Bakchylides napa:, has receded into the background here, npoe ;: ​​1 as well uno and Eni c. dat., which constructions 32 were particularly loved by Kallimachus. With the accusative we get the following table: 1. Eie ;: 34 2. 1tpoe ;: ​​21 3. E1ti: 5 4. xani 3 5. napa: ß 6. f. LETa: 1 7. unEp: 1 8. U1tO: 1 69 It has already been said earlier how much Herondas used the prepositions npoe; and egg; loves. Here we see Eie; u. npoe; c. acc. as the mainstays of the accusative. For the accusative owes precisely to these two prepositions that it deserves the first place in Herondas.

As we bri Heronda I see the accusative taking the first position and not the dative in connection with prepositions, we must regard this as a sign of later grace. S 3. repetitions. With regard to this point, there is not a single example recorded in Herondas. If there is an opportunity to repeat prepositions in some places, he avoids this by using the; Preposition only once 11l1d sets in the first \ forward, like JiI, 2C); III, 71; IV, 08; VII, 107; IX, 2, or he tries to bring a change into the verse, like I, 58: OUTE: VUXTOC; out ECP 11 / -! EPTlV, where he chooses a genitive first, but uses a prepositional expression second, and V, 3; 1-3 !: X1Alac; / lEV Ee; TO v & rov EYXOlj> at aUTcjJ XEAEUOOV, X1Aiac; bE T ~ yaoTpi: where he at he. : iter position for the designation of the place EC; c. ace. used, but the local dative second. § 4. Insertions. As for the position of the prepositions, our poet is always diligent in observing the usual position; first comes the preposition and then the associated noun. However, certain particles can appear between preposition and noun. There is no shortage of such examples in Kallimachus either. Herondas puts between preposition and noun: 1. / lEV: VII, 96; 2. bE: III, 64; 3. TE: IV, 90, and finally 4. yap: IV, GO. Herondas makes use of the preposition between adjective and noun: I, 41; IV, 83; V, 80. The preposition is separated from its noun by attributive genetics: IV, 78; V, 71; VI, 24. The separation is more important if there are other parts of speech between preposition and noun. In this regard, only a few examples can be mentioned from Herondas; for once the separation is completed by the pronoun OE: IV, 18 and once Eie stands; in the attributive genitive, derived from its noun through the adverb blxairoe; is separated: V, 7G, which position can be compared with those cases in Pindar in which the substalltive and praeposiLion are separated from one another by other words, but the preposition is always next to the attribute. , 35 § 5. Hiatus. In order to get to know the means by which the hiatus of Herondas is removed, we consider: 1. The hiatus that arises when the final vowel of the preposition meets the initial of the following word. Here Herondas uses: a) Elision: I, 2; 9; 9; 27; 40; 58; 11.77; III, 3; 51; G1; IV, 18; 83; V, 30; 46; 61; VI, 63; VII, 72; 114; 1:! 5; VIII, 12; 21; Paroim. 10. ß) preference of WOl tformell with consonant finals, such as axple; I, 14 and VII, 41 or / IEXpIe; II, 43. 2. To avoid the hiatus that arises when the initial vowel of the preposition meets the final vowel of the preceding word, Herondas used the following means: a) Elision: 1.27; 52; 58; II, 28; 77; 97; II1, 61; 95; IV, 44; V, 74; 80; VII, 96; 114; Paroim. 9. ß) Krasis: 11, 26; 28; 88; In, 90; IV, 34; 54. y) Aphairesis: 1.70: EYW ~ aAATlC; YUVctlxoC ;. b) Intermediate position: V, SO. The hiatus, which Herondas endeavors to avoid as far as possible not only in prepositions but also in other words, appears in some cases; it is then formed by the fact that the final vowel word collides with the vowel of the preposition: 1. For xai: IV, 80; IV, 93. 2. With aHa: I, 83. 3. With the prepositions Erd: III, 4 :; 1lI. 16; 111, 21; IV, 75; IV, ~ 3, where Eni meets everywhere with a long, final vowel. 4. In the preposition EV: V, 15 and unEp X, 3. - Herondas does not know other hiates.

36 Caput II. Special part. ~ 6. Prepositions of the lowest frequency level. 1. un o. As already mentioned above, Herondas uno can only be read in one passage, and this one passage also belongs to a dubious fragment. At this point, uno is connected to an accusative and has a local meaning: Frgm. 22, 2: tnno) uno ~ uyov. 2. b la. Also only in one place of the Herondas can be read blah, namely in connection with the genitive, in this case it has a local meaning: V, 46: bl ayoPf1> YUfJvo,> WV 3> EWpf1TaI. 3. avd. At one point where it is found in Herondas, it has its usual meaning of substitution: VI, 32: X ~ TEPl1V TlV av3> ~ fJEWV pElTW. 4. ano. While this praepo, ition has a fairly strong frequency number in Kallimachus and is not so rare in the poems of Pindars and Bakchylides, we only meet it in one place in Herondas, where it serves as an indication: VI, 4: ou b oub Ev GV nOtlo (ue :; aUT ~ ano OauTf1e:;. 5. / l ETa. 1. / lETa c. Gen V, 30: fJE3> ~ e :; aAtvb ~. 2. fJETa c. Ace. We meet at Herondas in a figurative sense to indicate the conformity: Prooim. 10: / lE3> InmDvaxm TOV naAat XAEtvOV., 37 6. unEp. 1. iJnEP c. Gen. Occurs only in one place in Herondas, namely with a causal meaning: V, 21: Tpie :; unEp OEU / lvut; E3l1xa. 2. unEp c. Ace. Can also only be read in one place and in my opinion it is used in temporal meaning: Frgm. X, 3: TU o) 8. oUv. In Herondas, ouv denotes a connection with people in an active state: IV, 88: XUYI (r. I nOAA ~ EA3> OI / lEV allTl,> / lE ~ OV lP aytvEuOat ouv aVbpaOtv xat natoi; VII, 88: q, E ; O \ JOI ouv TuXr. I npo) OE. 9. napa. napa c. gen. occurs in Herondas in a spatial meaning in the verbs of giving and coming to indicate a movement near a person: I, 2: nap 11 / lEWV EE; aypOlxil1> llXEI. What must be described as particularly noticeable at this point is the construction of napa c. gen.;. mm printouts of a spatial target. Typically, napa c is used to denote the direction or movement toward a person. ace. , while napa c. Gen. regularly denotes the distance from the vicinity of a person - that is, the exact opposite of what the sense demands in our place. If the passage is transmitted correctly - namely, Rutherford reads according to Crusius statement 11 / lEae:;, Kenyon but without any comment 11 / lEWV - then we are dealing with an innovation; in spite of repeated searches, I could not find the oldest writers. , Discover similar 1). Herondas turns at a second, admittedly uncertain passage; rapa c. gen., namely VlII, 21: nap lxpiwv TE) The closest we can compare with this is WitS Kühner pg. 547 (§ 449) on the connection of the Praepos. with different casus says. See also Bernhardy, great Synt. pg. 200 f.

38: rOlEDVTat COO: rEP TEAED! IEV EYXVPEDOl ollf. L ~ a. From my point of view, napa is not based on the same meaning that it sometimes has in the passive and intransitive context. Namely, with these it stands in place of uno, when it is to be indicated that something comes from the immediate vicinity, from someone's ability. In my opinion, napa c. gen. local significance at the point of attraction. 2. napa c. dat. is in local interpretation to indicate the quiet lingering in the vicinity. of a person: V, 61: nap AvnÖwpcp. 3.: rapa c. acc. It is used twice to indicate direction or movement in the vicinity of a person, i.e. in local meaning: I, \): EnElo EA & Eiv, [vAAiC ;,: rap ft! IEaC ;; I, 9: nap av & pwnove ;. Again in local meaning, but to indicate a direction or movement past a place, napa c is used. acc. V, 52:: rapa Ta MlxxaAIlC; aUTov ay ·. 10. xaTa. 1. xaTa c. In this connection, xaTa is read in three places in Herondas, specifically in a local meaning to express a movement directed from top to bottom: VIII, 16: XaTa cpapayyoe; w lof. Lf \ v /. . Laxpik Used from the direction of a lower-lying target, it says xaTa III, 3: WUWV xai w! I0v ÖEipov. At a third step, xaTa c. gen. opposite in the local sense, namely V, 68: xaTIlPTllo & üJ OÜTüJ xan: t / -lvoe; wonEp 11 ~ aov Tl / -lll. 2. xma c. acc. In Herondas' three places where it is found, has consistently local significance. III, 51: xa & ÜAIlV and VI, 63: xm oixif \ v ö Epya ~ Ei: at these points the basic meaning has been lost, so to speak. VII, 125: xai oixif \ v EAxElV. S 7. prepositions of the third u frequency level. 11. Eni. 1. Eni c. gen. has a local meaning: I, 41: vIlUe; / -lITte; En ayxupf \ e; DUX aOcpaA ~ C; Opf. LEuoa; III, 60: ou WXEüJe; wuwv apEii En w / -l0v; VII, 72: Ecp ~ e; aAwnll1; voooif \ v nEnoif \ WI. Likewise: III, 4: ft 1) lvx ~ auwu Eni XElAEüJV / -l0uvov ft xax ~ AEicp & f, \; VI, 37: T ~ V XOAllv Eni plVOe; EX,, 39 2. Eni c. dat. Herondas uses a figurative meaning to indicate the reason: IV, 83: EU / -lEV ~ e; Elf \ C; xaAoic; · En tpole; TaloÖE; Likewise, in my opinion, Eni is causal: III, 90: xai Öd Aaßdv VIV xani ßvßMcp Ö ~ xov TO / -lllMv. Ent in this meaning is particularly common in the verbs of affect: Ecp önp OE / -lVUVEO & E. - Used to indicate a purpose, bi c appears. dat. II1, 21: TIJ Eni navTl XPw / -lEo & a. 3. Eni c. ace. L3t written in local interpretation III, 16: Enl Toixov. To indicate the direction towards an object, Ent stands in the local sense IV, 75: cj) Ei ni vouv yEVOlW. In the temporal meaning bt c appears. acc. I, 58: oDTE VVXTOC; oDTE Ecp 11f. LEPllY AEinEl. To indicate the reason or purpose it serves III, H: oV / -lcpopi) e; ö ~ Öf \ 0P / -lq Eni / -lE (ov and VIII, 11: OtE / -l / -la b Ipa ÖI ~ 0 / -lEo & a. § 8. Praepositioucu of the second flute. 12. EV. Herondas knows only (lie form EV. It is a local expression of being or lingering within a space: "in": I, 27: Eoi EV Aiyumcp; 1,51: naie; / -lEV EV IIv & oi; I, 52: Öie ; ö EV Kopiv & cp; II, [) 7: oixEIC; ÖE oll / -lEpov / -lEv EV Bplxl \ Ö ~ pOle ;; II, 58: EX & Ee; Ö EV AßÖ11POlOlV; II, 90: EV T <{1 / - lEOcp EOTüJ; VI, 5: EV TIJ oixt. l rX] EIO; VIII, 13: EV TIJ oixi. l; III, 20: EV Ti) IOl cpu0. l; How; TE oils; xEi \ at; IV, 78: XPE! Iati ExEivoe; EV ypacpEüJC; OIXCP 1). - In the meaning on a space: I, 13: EV öE like; Aaupate; 0 nf \ AOe; apxle; iyvuüJv npoOEOTf \ XE \; II, 23: olxEüJ EV YIJ; II, 73: WO; TEP

40 EV can be read in an instrumental sense: V, 83: EV Ttl101 XEpoi T ~ O E ~ f. \ OI 3> pEtlJaoa. EV IV, 51 is used temporally: Eood 11 ~ EPI1 XElvl1, EV 1 ~ TO ßpEy ~ a TOUTO T öxro ~ VIV EX TETPI1 ~ EVI1e; 1 \ 3> egg; 1.45: 1to} ,. , M M CiyplO ~ XE1 ~ mv E !; EUbll1e; EVE1tEOE; VIII, 33: EPP EX 1tpooro1totJ. In local determinations, the Greeks often measure the relationship of things to one another differently than we Germans and therefore use EX, where we use a preposition that denotes a relationship. This happens a) with information like EX bE!; La ~ etc. 1); vg1. Herondas IV, 19: EX bE!; Ltl ~ TOV 1tivaxa, Koxxa} ,. , l1, OTtlOOV "ttl ~ yY1ElI1e ;.b) for all verbs that mean clinging to each other, as well as any combination of several objects that is thought of as clinging to each other, the Greeks designate the base with EX, while we Germans put “an”. See Herond. VII, 9: T ~ V Cixav3> av ayxvAIJ xa} ,. , fj EX "tou TpaX ~ Aou bfl. oov. Cf. 11. 22, 398; Od. 10, 96; 12, 51; 2a, 175., EX is often used when combining the same words.. to denote that there is a rapid transition from one thing to another; we use "after". See Herond. V, 85: Ci!; SlC "t ~ v EOPT ~ V E !; EOP" ttl ~. EX has temporal sense in Herondas; I, 11 and 23: E ~ oD; I1, 102: EX TroV 1taAatrov; IV, 40: E !; ÖTEU t;: roEl ~. To denote the emergence of a substance and the. according to also; mr designation of the emergence from a means I) Cf. Passow: Lex. s. v. EX, vol. LL r 41. EX ve :. turns. Here I would like to count from Herondas: PrOOlm. 9: E1tEa xafAvEIV EAEY E !; iafA [3rov. EX III 5 E stands as a substitute for the mere genitive. "". X fAEtJTa} \ mVl1 ~ TI1V O "tEYI1V 1tE1tOp & l1XEV. In relation to the author and the cause at V b : 3t EX used instead of the usual 1tapa: I, 69: E !; (i}.. Al1 ~ YtJpmxo ~ OUX d. V 11Mroc E1t ~ xotJoa; VI, 24: EX TOU Kop \ t "Tou ~ oTo ~ a" tOe; oubEIC; fAll axouoT, l; VII, 96: cDO "t EX fAEV 11 ~ Erov bl ~ TO TEAO ~, EW, 1tP ~; EtC ;. EX I, 25: 1tE1troXEV EX xmvfl. e ;; VII, 11: i \ MAEle; bEOfAa "tpißElV tl> O ET ~ fAaT EX TwvbE. To specify the means and tools: 1I, 29: EX 1tOIOtJ: -rI1AOU 1tE oaths: III, 71: iXETEro npoe; OE TlDV MOUOErov xal TWV YEvEiroV; IV, 30: npoe; MOlpEroV. Furthermore there is npoe; c. gen. in a figurative sense of the starting point and originator (= on the part), with the concepts of receiving, intransitive and passive already in Homer's poems, often in Herodotus, also not infrequently in Attics: II, G2: nE1t0v & a npoe; EMAI1TOe ;. . . 2. npoe; c. dat. is used to indicate a lingering time with an object; it denotes the object with or by the side of which there is something: Herond. IV, 60: npoe; yap Ot XEIV Valley at OaPXE :::;. 3. npoe; c. acc. In local meaning it can be read in verbs of movement, expressing both the mere direction and the goal to be reached: I, 12: npo :::; "t ~ v 3> vPI1V EA & oiloav EiM ne ;; II, 35: T) A&EV npoe; Ta :::; & upac; ~ EU; III, 64: npoe; bE T ~ V 1ta {oTp11V

42 EM tElpav xai L \ uxllv pab {souoa; VI, 96: AEYEle; üMv f. l0l VUV npoe; AP tEf. ltV dvct \ 1). One direction also lies npoe; basic in verbs of speaking and speaking: 11, 85: Eip lml npoe; TOUTOV; frgm. 23: f. lvllf. lf. l0vEuEm {ne; Em {pa npoe; t ~ v OVElb {souoav EinEtV, as well as in the verbs of seeing: II, 33: npoe; TOUe; v0f. l0ue; pAEnouol; VII, 92: npoe; slice egg & EAEle; oxEmEU. Similar is the construction V, 29: npoe; Awpum {llv mum f. L ~ f. LE nAllX tISEU, where nAllX tlSE1V comes quite close to the meaning of the verbs of speaking. Finally I put here: VII, 36: XaplV npo ::; f. lE tiVE1V EbEl, at which point the mere dative is to be expected. In the temporal meaning of the time, npoe is; used: VII, 42: npoe; op & pov and to indicate compliance: VII, 11D: npoe; lxvoe; t1XovllOE t ~ v Of. liAflV. § 9. First frequency level. 15. Eie ;. This preposition most often used by Herondas appears now in the form of Ee;, now in that of Eie ;. In local terms it serves to designate the goal one strives for: I, 23: Eie; AlyunTOv EO taA l; 11.59: Ee; ctt; 11, 88: x1) e; paoavov ai tij. Egg; with the accusative of the person is often used by epics and jonics in the same meaning as by the attics cbe ;, npoe ;, napa, namely to denote the approximation: I, 73: ou b atme; EC :; f. lE / lllM ha, CPlAll, TOtOV cpEpouoa XWPEI / lu & ov; VII, 109: Ee; & EOUe; avamtlval. I) VII, 123: npos & uP11v xIXAi ~ ouCla: we would here. select rather np6c; c. expect dat. But Herondas sets np6c; c. ace. w <1hrschemheh m intending to indicate the direction in which the quarry is located. As a result, we should npoc; & uP 1v on lJe8ten: Geg ae ;; IV, 44: egg; f. l opEuoa; IV, 1:) 0: Ee; ACPOV Ef. l13AEnOvm. Eie stands in the hostile sense; in the meaning "against": l, 77: EYYEAq nc; Egg; Mavbplv. Equivalent to the meaning after EV, Eie;: IlI, H3: M & Ole; T ~ V YMooav Ee; / lOu nAlSvae ;; this is a peculiarity of later writers. In a figurative sense, Eie is; used: VII. 66: tpE1J> t; le; f. lESOV Eie; cpuy ~ v Ilf. lEae ;; VIII, 26: egg; EV YEAro ::; tE xavill EXEpavVUV "t" O 1). In the temporal sense, Ei is ::; to be found at Herondas: V, 80: rEp ~ Vl Ee; nEf. l1Hllv. . , EIe used to print out the manner; in Heronda's poems: II, 87: 010Y Ee; tu bouAa oWf. lam onEubt; l; IV, 73: Ee; naVT AnEUEro ypaf. lf. lAT. Finally, Egg is ::; used to indicate the consideration of an object: I, 55: a & IXTOe; EC; KU & flpillV OcpPllyie ;. 1) PasBow: Lex. S. V. de; l. ) Cf. Pape, Lex. Vol. 1. p. 736, 1.

School news. I. The faculty. A. Changes since the end of the school year 1901/1902. P. Prof. Dr. Liberat Pedoth and P. Prof. Ignaz Harold were transferred from the provincial leadership to Bozen. In their place were Professors P. Adalbert Schneider and P. Franz Seraph. Gorfer. For Professor P. Max Straganz, who was on leave in the 1st semester, the k. k. Regional school council of Tyrol from September 9th 1902 number 3103 P. Lukas Rangger appointed as a supplement. The same decree authorizes the use of the supplements P. Pius Priewasser and P. Sigmund Herritsch; Priewasser was definitively confirmed as professor in the teaching office on May 22, 1903, number 2078. B. Staff numbers of the teaching staff and distribution of subjects in the school year 1902/1903. Director: P. Jus tin i a n L e n he taught Latin in the 3rd; in the 11th semester also in the 8th, Greek in the 3rd grade, 11 hours a week, in the 2nd semester 16 hours. Professors: 1. Father Rainer von An der Lan-Hochbrunn, catechist and exhortator, taught religion in all classes, 16 hours a week. 2. P. Prudenz Covi, class head of the 6th, taught Latin ll1 in the 6th, Greek in the 6th and 8th grades, 16 hours a week. Library of the comprehensive school Eich ::; Uitt 4