What are the functions of Elodea cells

Chloroplast: The round to egg-shaped chloroplasts are surrounded by a double membrane. Chloroplasts are responsible for the green color of plants because they contain the green pigment (chlorophyll), which absorbs sunlight for photosynthesis. There are therefore always several (approx. 5-40) chloroplasts in a plant cell.

Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is characterized by a highly branched, labyrinthine duct system. A basic distinction is made between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth ER primarily serves as a storage medium for calcium, whereas the rough ER is used for translation (protein biosynthesis) of the plant cell.

Golgi apparat: The Golgi apparatus (also called dictyosomes) is often located in close proximity to the cell nucleus, where it adapts the proteins synthesized from the ribosomes, packs them in vesicles and sends them to their destination. For the plant cell, the Golgi apparatus is particularly important for the synthesis of cellulose (the main component of the cell wall).

Mitochondria: The mitochondria are elongated cell organelles surrounded by a double membrane, which are responsible for the supply of energy-rich molecules (ATP) within the cell. At the same time, mitochondria have their own DNA and can thus multiply independently of the DNA in the cell nucleus.

Peroxisomes: The structure of the circular peroxisomes (or microbodies) is similar to that of normal transport vesicles. However, their primary task is to detoxify the cell. To do this, they convert harmful hydrogen peroxide into harmless water via enzymatic reactions.

Plasmodesma: A plasmodesmos is considered to be the point of contact between two different plant cells, so that an intercellular exchange of substances via the cytosol is possible.

Ribosomes: The translation takes place on the ribosomes, i.e. the translation of the genetic code into amino acid chains. Ribosomes largely consist of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins. The number of ribosomes fluctuates, averages around 100,000 per cell and is distributed among the cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and the chloroplasts.

Tonoplast: The tonoplast is the semipermeable membrane that surrounds the vacuole of the plant cell.

Vacuole: As (by far) the largest cell organelle in plants, the vacuole filled with cell sap provides the so-called turgor pressure, with which the plant cell is able to absorb water from the environment. In addition, vacuoles are also used by the plant as a storage medium, for example to isolate toxins from the rest of the cell or to store certain (useful) substances.

Vesicle: Small, round vesicles with a transport function. Vesicles enclose substances and transport them to the cell membrane, where they fuse with it and release the contents to the outside. Vesicles are extremely small compared to other cell organelles.

Cell nucleus: The spherical cell nucleus contains the genetic material (in the form of chromosomes, which for the most part consist of deoxyribonucleic acid) of the plant cell. The important processes of DNA replication and transcription also take place here.

Cell membrane: The cell membrane completely surrounds the plant cell, and at the same time, thanks to its semi-permeable property, maintains the cell's internal balance (homeostasis) by preventing the uncontrolled inflow and outflow of particles. Cell membranes consist of a double lipid layer.

Cell wall: The cell wall completely surrounds the plant cell and gives it shape and strength. Although the cell walls made of cellulose do not count among the real membranes, they have semi-permeable properties (only permeable to certain substances). In addition, animals and humans do not have cell walls.

cytoplasm: The interior of the plant cell is summarized under the term cytoplasm (or cell plasma). Both the liquid (cytosol) and the cell organelles floating in it are therefore part of the process. Water and protein make up approximately 95% of the cytoplasm.

Cytoskeletal filaments: Thread-pulling proteins in the cytoplasm are called cytoskeletal filaments. They have an internal support and stabilization function. Compared to animal cells, the plant cytoskeleton is rather weak, as the cell walls take on the predominant part of the support function.