How did the Portuguese rule Goa

Goa - Goa

Motto (s):

Sarve Bhadrāni Paśyantu Mā Kaścid Duhkhabhāg bhavet
( May everyone see goodness, may no one suffer pain )
Coordinates (Panaji): 15.50 ° N 73.83 ° E Coordinates: 15.50 ° N 73.83 ° E. 15 ° 30'N 73 ° 50'E /. / 15.50; 73.83 15 ° 30'N 73 ° 50'E /. / 15.50; 73.83
country India
State building May 30, 1987
Capital Panaji (Panjim)
Biggest town Vasco da Gama
Districts 2
government
• Body Government of Goa
• Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari
• Prime Minister Pramod Sawant (BJP)
• Legislation Single chamber (40 seats)
• constituency Rajya Sabha 1
Lok Sabha 2
• Secretary General Parimal Rai, IAS
Area
• A total of 3702 km 2 (1,429 square miles)
Territory Rank 28 ..
population
• A total of 1.458.545
• Rank 26 ..
Demonym (s) Goan, Goenkār
Time zone UTC + 05: 30 (IST)
PEN
Area code (s) +91 0832
ISO 3166 code IN-GA
Vehicle registration GA -
HDI (2018) 0.761 (high) 3 ..
Gender ratio 973 ♀ / 1000 ♂
Literacy 88,70% (3.)
Official language
website www .goa .gov .in
^ * Konkani in Devanagari script is the only official language, but Marathi and English may be used for any or all official purposes.

Goa (/ ɡoʊ ə / (listen) ) is a state on the southwest coast of India in the region known as Konkan and geographically separated from the Deccan Highlands by the Western Ghats. It is surrounded to the north by the Indian states of Maharashtra and to the east and south by Karnataka, with the Arabian Sea forming its west coast. It is India's smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita of any Indian country, two and a half times the country's per capita GDP. The Eleventh Finance Commission of India named Goa the best ranked state for its infrastructure, and the National Population Commission of India rated it the best quality of life in India (based on the commission's “12 indicators”).

Panaji is the state capital while Vasco da Gama is the largest city. The historic town of Margão in Goa still shows the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first traveled to the subcontinent as merchants in the early 16th century and soon afterwards conquered it, after which Goa became an overseas territory of the Portuguese Empire and was part of it at the time known as Portuguese India and as such persisted for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961. Goa's official language, spoken by the majority of its residents, is Konkani.

Goa is visited by large numbers of international and local tourists each year as it offers white sandy beaches, an active nightlife, places of worship and world heritage architecture. It is also rich in flora and fauna as it is in the Western Ghats Range, a biodiversity hotspot.

etymology

After the Bahmani -Bijapuri city of Goa was captured by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1510, and became the capital of the Estado da Índia, the city gave its name to the adjacent areas. The origin of the city name Goa is unclear. In ancient literature Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanchala , Gopakapattana , Gopakapattam , Gopakapuri , Govapuri , Govem and Gomantak . Other historical names for Goa are Sindapur , Sandabur and Mahassapatam .

history

prehistory

Rock engravings found in Goa are the earliest known traces of human life in India. Goa is located in the Shimoga-Goa greenstone belt in the western ghats (an area made up of metavolcanoes, iron formations and ferruginous quartzite) and provides evidence of an occupation by Acheul. Rock art engravings (petroglyphs) are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing Kushavati River and into Kajur. In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals, tectiforms and other granite patterns were associated with a so-called megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the middle. Petroglyphs, cones, stone ax and choppers dating back 10,000 years have been found in various locations in Goa including Zu, Mauxim, and the Mandovi - Zuari Basin. Evidence of Paleolithic life can be seen in Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne and Aquem-Margaon. The difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem in determining the exact time period.

Early Goan society saw a radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants joined forces with the aboriginal people and formed the basis of early Goan culture.

Early history

In the 3rd century BC Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, which was ruled by the Buddhist Emperor Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation stone for Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC In the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century BC to 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), Abhiras of West Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav - Clans of Gujarat and Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who they controlled between 578 and 753, and later to the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the southern Silharas of Konkan Goa ruled as feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next several centuries Goa was ruled successively by the Kadambas as the feudatory of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. You patronized Jainism in Goa.

In 1312 Goa came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom's influence on the region was weak and by 1370 it was forced to hand it over to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held the area until 1469 when it was appropriated by the Bahman sultans of Gulbarga. After this dynasty collapsed, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established the city known to the Portuguese as Velha Goa (or Old Goa) as the auxiliary capital.

Portuguese time

The Se Cathedral in Old Goa, built in 1619, is an example of Portuguese architecture and one of the largest churches in Asia.

In 1510 the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur Sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timoji, a privateer. They established a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa, which would last four and a half centuries before it was annexed to India in 1961. The Goa Inquisition, an official tribunal, was founded in 1560 and finally abolished in 1812.

From the last decades of the eighteenth century, the area of ​​Goa consisted of two segments: the central core of the Velhas Conquistas (Ancient Conquests) - Bardez, Ilhas of Tiswadi and Salsete). These areas had existed since the sixteenth century; and the Novas Conquistas (New Conquests) - Bicholim, Canacona, Pernem, Quepem, Sattari, Sanguem - areas that were added successively in the 18th century.

In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital from Velha Goa to the Cidade da Nova Goa which is known today as Panaji. By the middle of the 18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of today's state borders. At the same time, the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilized and the Estado da Portugndia Portuguesa or formed the Portuguese state of India .

Contemporary time

After India gained independence from British rule in 1947, India applied for the cession of Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent to India. Portugal refused to negotiate the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On December 19, 1961, the Indian army marched in with Operation Vijay, which led to the annexation of Goa and the islands of Daman and Diu into the Indian Union. Goa was organized together with Daman and Diu as the centrally administered trade union area of ​​India. On January 16, 1967, a referendum was held in Goa to decide on the future of the union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. It was the only referendum in independent India. The referendum gave the people of Goa a choice between continuing as a union territory or merging with Maharashtra state, and the majority opted for the former. On May 30, 1987, union territory was divided and Goa was named the twenty-fifth state in India, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory.

Geography and climate

Geography

Goa covers an area of ​​3,702 km 2 . It lies between latitudes 14 ° 53'54 '' N and 15 ° 40'00 '' N and longitudes 73 ° 40'33 '' E and 74 ° 20'13 '' E.

Goa is part of the coastal land known as Konkan. This is an escarpment that rises up to the mountain ranges of the Western Ghats that separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor with a height of 1,167 meters. Goa has a coast of 160 km.

Goa's seven main rivers are Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua Canal, Talpona and Sal. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the main rivers through which the Kumbarjua Canal traverses and form an important estuary complex. These rivers are fed by monsoons in the southwest, and their basin covers 69% of the state's geographic area. These rivers are among the busiest in India. Goa has more than 40 estuaries, eight sea islands and about 90 river islands. The total navigable length of the rivers in Goa is 253 km. Goa has more than 300 ancient water tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba Dynasty and over 100 medicinal springs.

Mormugao Port, at the mouth of the Zuari River, is one of the best natural harbors in South Asia.

Most of Goa's land cover consists of laterites, which are rich in iron-aluminum oxides and reddish in color. Further inland and along the river banks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus and thus promotes agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks on the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on the Goa-Karnataka border. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic gneiss, estimated to be 3,600 million years old and dated by rubidium isotope dating. A copy of the rock is on display at Goa University.

climate

Goa has a tropical monsoon climate according to the Köppen climate classification. Located in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, Goa has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is usually the hottest with daytime temperatures of over 35 ° C and high humidity. The state's three seasons are the southwest monsoon season (June-September), the post-monsoon season (October-January), and the pre-monsoon season (February-May). Over 90% of average annual rainfall (120 inches) occurs during the monsoon season.

Climatic data for Goa
month Jan. Feb To damage Apr Can Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Average high ° C (° F) 31,6
(88,9)
31,5
(88,7)
32,0
(89,6)
33,0
(91,4)
33,0
(91,4)
30,3
(86,5)
28,9
(84,0)
28,8
(83,8)
29,5
(85,1)
31,6
(88,9)
32,8
(91,0)
32,4
(90,3)
31,3
(88,3)
Daily mean value ° C (° F) 26,0
(78,8)
26,3
(79,3)
27,7
(81,9)
29,3
(84,7)
30,0
(86,0)
27,6
(81,7)
26,7
(80,1)
26,4
(79,5)
26,9
(80,4)
27,9
(82,2)
27,6
(81,7)
26,6
(79,9)
27,4
(81,4)
Average low ° C (° F) 19,6
(67,3)
20,5
(68,9)
23,2
(73,8)
25,6
(78,1)
26,3
(79,3)
24,7
(76,5)
24,1
(75,4)
24,0
(75,2)
23,8
(74,8)
23,8
(74,8)
22,3
(72,1)
20,6
(69,1)
23,2
(73,8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0,2
(0,01)
0,1
(0,00)
1,2
(0,05)
11,8
(0,46)
112,7
(4,44)
868,2
(34,18)
994,8
(39,17)
512,7
(20,19)
251,9
(9,92)
124,8
(4,91)
30,9
(1,22)
16,7
(0,66)
2,926
(115,2)
Average days of precipitation 0.0 0.0 0,1 0,8 4.2 21.9 27.2 13.3 13.5 6.2 2.5 0,4 90.1
Average monthly hours of sunshine 313.1 293.8 291.4 288,0 297.6 126.0 105.4 120,9 177.0 248.0 273.0 300,7 2,834,9
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization
Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory for sunshine and average temperatures

separations

Talukas from Goa. Talukas in shades of green belong to the North Goa District, and orange refers to the South Goa District.

The state is divided into two districts: North Goa and South Goa. Each district is administered by a district collector appointed by the Government of India.

Panaji is the headquarters of the North Goa District and also the capital of Goa.

North Goa is further divided into three sub-divisions - Panaji, Mapusa, and Bicholim; and five Talukas (Subdistricts) - Tiswadi / Ilhas de Goa (Panaji), Bardez (Mapusa), Pernem, Bicholim and Sattari (Valpoi).

Margao is the headquarters of the South Goa District.

South Goa is further divided into five subdivisions - Ponda, Mormugao - Vasco, Margao, Quepem and Dharbandora; and seven Talukas - Ponda, Mormugao, Salcete (Margao), Quepem and Canacona (Chaudi), Sanguem and Dharbandora. (Ponda taluka was moved from North Goa to South Goa in January 2015).

Goa's capitals include Panaji, Margao, Vasco, Mapusa, Ponda, Bicholim and Valpoi.

Panaji has the only urban society in Goa.

There are thirteen local councils: Margao, Mormugao (including Vasco), Pernem, Mapusa, Bicholim, Sanquelim, Valpoi, Ponda, Cuncolim, Quepem, Curchorem, Sanguem, and Canacona. Goa has a total of 334 villages.

Government and politics

The politics of Goa are the result of the uniqueness of this region due to 450 years of Portuguese rule compared to three centuries of British rule in the rest of India. The Indian National Congress could not achieve electoral success in the first two decades after the incorporation of the state in India. Instead, the state was dominated by regional political parties such as the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party and the United Goans Party.

government

In the Parliament of India, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha (House of the People) the lower house of the Indian Parliament, one representing each quarter and one seat in the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

Goa's administrative capital is Panaji in English, Panjim also as Pangim in Portuguese and Ponjê in the local language. It is located on the left bank of the Mandovi River. The seat of the Legislative Assembly of Goa is in Porvorim, opposite the Mandovi of Panaji. Since the state falls under the Bombay Supreme Court, Panaji has a bank in it. Unlike other states that follow the model of civil laws introduced for individual religions in the days of Raj, the Portuguese Civil Code of Goa, a unified code based on the Napoleonic code, was retained in Goa.

Goa has a unicameral legislature, the Goa Legislative Assembly, with 40 members, which is led by a speaker. The Prime Minister heads the executive branch, which is composed of the party or coalition elected by a majority in the legislature. The governor, the head of state, is appointed by the Indian president. Having had stable governance for nearly thirty years until 1990, Goa is now known for its political instability, having seen fourteen governments in the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005.

In March 2005, the governor dissolved the assembly and declared the rule of the president, thereby suspending the legislature. In a by-election in June 2005, India's National Congress returned to power after winning three of the five seats that went to the polls. The Congress Party and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the two largest parties in the state. In the 2007 Congregation poll, the INC-led coalition won and formed the government. In the Vidhan Sabha elections in 2012, the Bharatiya Janata party won a clear majority together with the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak party and formed the new government with Manohar Parrikar as prime minister. Other parties are the United Goans Democratic Party and the Nationalist Congress Party.

In the 2017 general election, the Indian National Congress won the most seats, with the BJP taking second place. In the 40-strong house, however, no party was able to achieve a majority. The BJP was invited to form a government by Governor Mridula Sinha. Congress called for the BJP to use monetary power and took the case to the Supreme Court. However, the government led by Manohar Parikkar was able to prove its majority in the "soil test" required by the Supreme Court.

Flora and fauna

Coconut palms are a ubiquitous symbol of Goa

The equatorial forest area in Goa is 1,424 km 2 most of which are owned by the government. The state-owned forest is 1,224.38 km 2 estimated while the private forest with 200 km 2 is specified. Most of the state's forests are in the eastern interior regions of the state. The western ghats, which make up most of eastern Goa, are internationally recognized as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. In the February 1999 issue of the National Geographic Magazine Goa has been compared to the Amazon and Congo basins because of its rich tropical biodiversity.

There are more than 1512 documented plant species, over 275 bird species, over 48 animal species and over 60 species of reptiles in Goa's nature reserves.

Goa is also known for its coconut cultivation. The coconut tree has been classified as a palm (like grass) by the government, allowing farmers and property developers to clear land with fewer restrictions.

Rice is the main food crop, and pulses (legumes), Ragi (Finger millet) and other food crops are also grown. The main crops are coconut, cashew nut, areca nut, sugar cane and fruits such as pineapple, mango and banana. Goa's state animal is the Gaur, the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul, a variation of the Black-Crested Bulbul, and the state tree is the Matti (Asna).

Rice fields are common in rural Goa.

The most important forest products are bamboo sticks, maratha bark, chillar bark and the bhirand. Coconut palms are ubiquitous and are found in almost all areas of Goa, with the exception of the elevated regions. A variety of deciduous trees, such as teak, sal tree, cashew, and mango trees are present. Fruits include jackfruit, mango, pineapple, and "black berry" ("podkoam" in Konkani language). Goa's forests are rich in medicinal plants.

In the jungles of Goa there are foxes, wild boars and migratory birds. The avifauna (bird species) includes kingfisher, Myna and parrot. Numerous species of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. Crabs, lobsters, prawns, jellyfish, oysters and catfish form the basis of marine fishing. Goa also has a high snake population. Goa has many famous "national parks" including the famous Salim Ali bird sanctuary on Chorão Island. Other nature reserves include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Molem Wildlife Sanctuary, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, and Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary.

Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under state forests (1,224.38 km 2 ), of which about 62% were brought under protected areas (PA) of nature reserves and national parks. Since there is a considerable area under private forests and a large area under cashew, mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover makes up 56.6% of the geographic area.

economy

Gross Domestic Product (in million rupees)
year GSDP
1980 3,980
1985 6.550
1990 12.570
1995 33,190
2000 76.980
2010 150.000

Goa's national domestic product for 2017 is estimated at $ 11 billion at current prices. Goa is India's richest state with the highest GDP per capita - two and a half times that of the country - with one of the fastest growth rates: 8.23% (annual average 1990-2000). Tourism is Goa's main industry: 12% of foreign tourists arrive in India. Goa has two main tourist times: winter and summer. In winter, tourists come from abroad (mainly from Europe), and in summer (Goa is the rainy season) tourists come from all over India. Goa's net domestic product