TED Why are TEDtalks so famous
How do you explain when things turn out differently than we suspect? Or rather, how do you explain when others are able to accomplish things that seemingly contradict all of our guesses? For example: Why is Apple so innovative? Year after year, and again and again, they are more innovative than any of their competitors. And they're just a computer company. You're just like everyone else. They have the same access to the same talent, the same agencies, the same consultants, the same media. Then why does it seem like they have something else? Why is it that Marin Luther King led the civil rights movement? He wasn't the only man who suffered from an America with no civil rights. And he was definitely not the only great speaker of his time. Why he? And why is it that the Wright Brothers could do controlled, manned powered flights when there were certainly other teams that were better qualified, better funded, and couldn't do manned powered flights and were beaten by the Wright Brothers. Something else is at play here.
About three and a half years ago, I made a discovery, and that discovery fundamentally changed my view of how I thought the world would work. And she fundamentally changed the way I behave in her. It turns out - there is a pattern - it turns out that all of the great and inspiring leaders and organizations in the world, whether it's Apple or Martin Luther King or the Wright Brothers, think, act and communicate in exactly the same way Wise. And it's the complete opposite of everyone else. All I did was decipher it. And it's probably the simplest idea in the world. I call it the golden circle.
Why? How? What? This tiny idea explains why some organizations and some leaders are able to inspire and others are not. Let me briefly define the terms. Every single person, every single organization on this planet knows what they're doing 100 percent. Some know how to do it, whether you call it your differentiated value proposition or your value creation process or your unique selling proposition. But very, very few people or organizations know why they are doing what they are doing. And by "why" I don't mean "to make a profit". That's a result. That is always a result. By "why" I mean: What is your business purpose? What is your concern? What are your beliefs? Why does your company exist? Why do you get up in the morning? And why should anyone care? Well, as a result, we have the way we think, how we act, how we communicate, namely from the outside in. It is obvious. We go from the most tangible object to the least tangible object. But the inspired leaders and organizations, regardless of size, regardless of business, all think, act, and communicate from the inside out.
Let me give you an example. I use Apple because they are easy to understand and understandable for everyone. If Apple were like everyone else, maybe a promotional message would sound like this. "We make great computers. They are beautifully designed, easy to use, and easy to use. Would you like to buy one?" Neh. And that's how most of us communicate. That's how most of the advertising is done. This is how most sales are made. And this is how most of us communicate with one another. We say what we do, we say how we differentiate ourselves or how we are better and we expect a certain behavior, a purchase, a voice, something like that. Here is our new law firm. We have the best lawyers with the biggest clients. We always perform for our clients who do business with us. Here is our new car. It has good gas mileage. It has leather seats. Buy our car. But that's not inspiring.
Here's how Apple really communicates. "In everything we do, we believe that the status quo can be challenged. We believe that we think differently. We challenge the status quo by making our products beautiful, easy to use and Make it easy to use. We just make great computers. Want to buy one? " Completely different, isn't it? You are ready to buy a computer from me. All I've done is change the order of the information. What it proves is that people don't buy what you do; People buy why you do something. People don't buy what you do, they buy why you do it.
That explains why every single person in this room feels good buying an Apple computer. But we also feel good when we buy an Apple MP3 player or an Apple phone or an Apple digital video recorder. But, like I said earlier, Apple is just a computer company. There is nothing that structurally distinguishes them from their competitors. Your competitors are all equally qualified to make the same products. The fact is, they tried. A few years ago, Gateway introduced flat screen televisions. They were excellently qualified to make flat screen televisions. You've been making flat screens for computers for years. Nobody bought one. Dell launched MP3 players and PDAs. And they make top quality products. And they make perfectly designed products. And nobody bought one. The fact is, speaking of it right now, we can't even imagine buying a Dell MP3 player. Why would you buy an MP3 player from a computer company? But we do it every day. People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it. The goal is not to do business with everyone who needs what you have. The goal is to do business with everyone who believes what you believe. And now comes the best.
None of what I tell you is my opinion. It's all based on the principles of biology. Not psychology, biology. If you look at a cross-section of the human brain, looking from top to bottom, you can see that the human brain is divided into three major parts that perfectly correspond to the golden circle. Our youngest brain, our Homo sapiens brain, our neocortex corresponds to the "what" level. The neocortex is responsible for all of our rational and analytical thoughts and language. The middle two parts form our limbic brain. And our limbic system is responsible for all of our feelings like trust and loyalty. It is also responsible for all of our human behavior, all decision-making and does not involve language.
In other words, if we are communicating from the outside in, yes, then people understand large amounts of complicated information like the features and benefits and the facts and the numbers. It just doesn't direct behavior. If we can communicate from the inside out, we can speak directly to the part of the brain that controls behavior and then allow people to reason with tangible things that we say and do. This is how decisions are made from the gut. You know that, sometimes you can give someone all the facts and figures and they'll say, "I know what all the facts and details say, but it just doesn't feel right." Why would we use the verb, it "doesn't feel" right? Because the part of the brain that controls decision-making doesn't control language. And the best we can think of is, "I don't know. It doesn't feel right". Or sometimes you say that you follow the heart or that you listen to the soul. Well, I hate to have to tell you, these are not other parts of the body that determine their behavior. It all happens here in your limbic system, the part of the brain that controls decision making and not language.
But if you don't know why you do what you do and people react to why you do what you do, how do you ever get people to vote for you or to buy something from you or, more importantly, to be loyal and a part of what you do. Again, the goal is not simply to sell to the people who need what you have, the goal is to sell to the people who believe what you believe. The goal is not simply to hire the people who need a job; it's hiring the people who believe what you believe. I always say that, as you know, if you hire people just because they can do the job, then they will get your money's worth, but if you hire people who believe what you believe then they will work for you with blood , Sweat and tears. And nowhere is there a better example of this than with the Wright brothers.
Most people don't know about Samuel Pierpont Langley. And then, at the beginning of the 20th century. Working on powered aircraft was the internet of today. Everyone tried. And Samuel Pierpont Langley had, as we would guess, the recipe for success. I mean, even today, when you ask people, "Why did your product fail or did your company fail?" People always give you the same combination of the same three things, too little capital, the wrong people, bad market conditions. It's always the same three things, so let's look at them. Samuel Pierpont Langley was given $ 50,000 by the War Department to build this flying machine. Money wasn't a problem. He had a job at Harvard and worked at the Smithsonian Institute and was extremely well connected. He knew all the great minds of his time. He hired the smartest minds money could get. And the market conditions were fantastic. The New York Times followed him everywhere. And everyone supported Langley. Then how is it that you never heard of him?
A few hundred miles away in Dayton Ohio, Orville and Wilbur Wright had none of what we would consider a recipe for success. They didn't have any money. They financed their dream with the proceeds from their bicycle business. Not a single person on the Wright brothers' team had college education, not even Orville or Wilbur. The New York Times didn't follow them anywhere.The difference was: Orville and Wilbur were driven by cause, purpose, belief. They believed that if they could build this flying machine, it would change the course of the world. Samuel Pierpont Langley was different. He wanted to be rich and he wanted to be famous. He followed the result. He pursued wealth. And see what happened. The people who believed in the Wright brothers' dream worked with them with blood and sweat and tears. The others worked for their paychecks. And they say that the Wright brothers always took five sets of gear with them every time they went out, because that's how often they would crash before they got home to eat.
And, finally, on December 17th, 1903, the Wright brothers took off and no one was there to see it. It didn't become known until a few days later. And another piece of evidence that Langley was motivated by the wrong things is that he gave up the day the Wright brothers took off. He could have said, "This is an amazing discovery, guys, and I'll keep developing your technology," but he didn't. He wasn't the first, he didn't get rich, he didn't get famous, so he gave up.
People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it. And when you talk about what you believe, you will attract those who believe what you believe. But why is it important to attract those who believe what you believe? Something called the diffusion theory of innovation. And if you don't know the theory, you definitely know the meaning. The first two and a half percent of our population are our innovators. The next thirteen and a half percent of our population are our early adopters. The next 34 percent is your early majority, your late majority, and your laggards. The only reason these people buy pushbutton phones is because they can no longer buy rotary phones.
We are all at different points on this scale at different times, but what diffusion theory is telling us is that if you want success with the crowd, or for the crowd to accept an idea, you can't have that until you hit the tip-off point Achieve between 15 and 18 percent market penetration. And then it tips over. And I love to ask companies, "How is your participation in the new business?" And they love to proudly tell you, "Oh, it's 10 percent." Well, you can stumble over 10 percent of customers. We all have about 10 percent "get it". That's how we describe them, right. That's the gut feeling: "Oh, they got it." The problem is, how do you find those who understand before you did business with you versus those who don't? This is this, this little void you need to fill in what Jeffrey Moore calls "crossing the chasm". Understand, because the early majority won't try something until someone else tries first. And these people, the innovators and the early adopters, are relaxed about making those gut decisions. They are more relaxed about making intuitive decisions based on what they believe about the world, not what product is available.
These are the people who stood in line for six hours to buy an iPhone when it first hit the market when you could have just walked into the store the next week and bought one off the shelf. These are the people who spent $ 40,000 on flat screen TVs when they first hit the market even though the technology was below standard. And, by the way, they didn't because the technology was so great. They did it for themselves. Because they wanted to be the first. People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it. And what you do just proves what you believe. In fact, people will do the things that prove what they believe. The reason people bought an iPhone in the first six hours and stood in line for six hours was because of their worldview, and their will for everyone to see them. They were the first. People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it.
Let me give you a famous example, a famous failure and a famous success of diffusion theory in innovation. First, the famous failure It is a promotional example. As we just said a second ago, the recipe for success is money and the right people and the right market conditions. Correct. You should be successful then. Check out TiVo. Ever since it came out as TiVo [with your hard drive recorder], about eight or nine years ago, to this day, they have been the only high quality product on the market, hands down there is no argument. You are extremely well funded. The market conditions were fantastic. I mean, we used TiVo as a verb. I TiVo all the time doing things on my bad Time Warner DV recorder.
But TiVo is a commercial failure. You never made any money. And when they went public, their stock was around $ 30 or $ 40 and then they crashed and never went above $ 10. In fact, I don't even think they traded above six with the exception of a few small spikes. You see, because when TiVo released their product, they told us everything they had. They said, "We have a product that can pause the TV program that is currently playing, skip ads, rewind the program that is currently playing, and save your TV viewing habits without it asking you." And the cynical majority said, "We don't believe you. We don't need this. We don't like that. It scares us." What if you said, "If you're the kind of person who likes to be in total control of every aspect of your life, boy boy, we have a product for you. It pauses, skips the TV program Advertising, saves your viewing habits, etc, etc. " People don't buy what you do, they buy why you do it. And what you do serves us as evidence of what you believe.
Now let me give you a successful example of diffusion theory in innovation. In the summer of 1963, 250,000 people came to the Washington mall to see Dr. Hear King talk. They had not sent out any invitations and there was no website to find out the date. How do you do that? Well dr. King wasn't the only man in America who was a great speaker. He wasn't the only man in America suffering from civil rights in an America. The fact is, some of his ideas were bad. But he had a gift. He didn't go around telling people what needs to change in America. He ran around telling people what he believed in. "I believe. I believe. I believe," he told the people. And people who believed what he believed took up his cause and made it their own and they told people about it. And some of these people created structures to get the message across to even more people. And who would have thought, 250,000 people came on the right day, at the right time to hear him speak.
How many came because of him? Zero. They came for themselves. It is what they believed about America that made them travel eight hours on a bus to stand under the Washington sun in the middle of August. It's what they believed and it wasn't about black versus white. 25 percent of the audience were white. Dr. King believed that there are two kinds of laws in the world, those made by a higher authority and those made by humans. And only when all the laws made by humans are in accordance with the laws made by the higher authority will we live in a righteous world. And it just so happens that the civil rights movement was the perfect thing to help him bring to life. We followed, not because of him, but because of us. And, by the way, he made the "I have a dream" speech, not the "I have a plan" speech.
Nowadays, listen to the politicians with their comprehensive 12 point plans. You don't inspire anyone. Because there are those who lead and those who lead. The leaders have a position of power or authority. But those who lead inspire us. Regardless of whether they are individuals or organizations, we follow those who lead, not because we have to, but because we want to. We follow those who lead, not for their sake, but for our sake. And it is those who start with the "why" who have the ability to inspire those around them or to find others to inspire them.
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