Have leaders in kibbutzim in Israel
Berliner Zeitung 08/31/2019
One city, one country, many opinions: Now the readers are debating - page 6
Waste paper recycling
for commercial and
Sun, sun, sun
Weather page 16
ON THE WEEKEND
August 31/1. September 2019
No. 202 HA -75. vintage
Away / D *: € 2.00
Berlin / Brandenburg: 1.80 €
In the magazine:
Do that thing
Miro Klose on the final of the 2014 World Cup
Pages 2 and 3
Just do nothing
Jenny Odell and the burden of social media
On the run
Jochen-Martin Gutsch on the war
Building Senator Katrin Lompscher had an extreme design for her rent cover.
Now she has delivered. And what is left of the revolution? Comment on page 8, Berlin on page 9
DPA / KAY NIERFELD; IMAGO IMAGES / UNITED ARCHIVES
Features page 25
Report pages 2 and 3
The citizens of two federal states
State parliaments, and the whole
Republic cheers with you. So
will that be on sunday evening
when at 6 p.m. the first results
from Brandenburg and from
Enter Saxony. Here you can
there together only 5.7 million
People choose less than ten
Percent of eligible voters in
But it's after almost a year
the first major real political
Mood test this time face
the heated mood
in the country more like a fever fair
remind. The European and the Bremen
May elections count because of the
many special factors not really.
But now two federal states
and in addition in the east, which is 30 years
after the session still or
again as a very special problem area
You won't see until Sunday evening
what the predictions of pollsters
really did well.
But it is clear that the
Process of dwindling binding force
of the people's parties CDU
and SPD will continue as well as
the rise of the AfD. You can do it
regret and shake your head too
about the strange mood
in eastern German federal states,
its citizens esmaterial
on average always better and
their dissatisfaction nonetheless
grows. But these developments
also have something positive: they lead to
that finally debated again
and there is arguing in the country.
That nothing is declared to be without alternative
will and in case of doubt CDU and
SPD always their smallest common
Denominator, the least
enforce creative solution. It
is more movement in the political
Play of forces than for decades. The
is good for democracy, democratic ones
Parties are after the
Choice probably more imagination
than ever need to be governable
To form majorities or also
try out a minority government.
That would not be a misfortune either
like the social democratic one
Prime Minister Reinhard Höppner
in Saxony-Anhalt before 25
Years has proven.
And yes, it's not nice when
a party with racist, folkish
and illiberal traits in general
how the AfD is so popular.
With men like that
Brandenburg top candidate
Andreas Kalbitz, who at one
Neonacite meeting with swastika flag
was there in Athens, but himself
when the AfD in Saxony reaches the 25th
Get percent of the vote
should - such a result means
also that 75 percent of the voters
voted against this party.
That's 75 percent for defense
political culture and
of open democracy, as it is in
the past decades in
in the East
Why the elections in Brandenburg and
Saxony even consequences
for world politics
By Holger Schmale
State elections in
The new confrontation has come
past elections to a
increasing voter turnout,
that too is a good sign. It
shows that more people are back in
the Federal Republic of the value of our
Recognize the constitution and at least
advocate it with their voice.
It's encouraging so far
no populist made it in Germany
has a confrontation between
the citizens and parliaments
bring about how politicians do this
like Donald Trump or Boris
Practice Johnson. You put on
the idea of the strong man, the one
supposed "popular will"
also against the elected MPs
prevailed in parliaments.
That's a dangerous strategy
undermines democracy and in
can lead totalitarianism. The
the best remedies are strong ones
Voter turnout and awake parliaments,
the close contact with the
Voting and not especially
deal with yourself. The
shows great interest in the elections,
that with us the parliaments are at the center
State elections have in
Germany always has an impact
on federal politics. There
it's about very tangible consequences like
the majority in the Federal Council.
But they also influence that
political mood. So will
the performance of the Social Democrats
in the upcoming decision
include whether they are beyond the end of the year
out in coalition with the
CDU / CSU stay. Does that too
part of the tension of the election night
out that about the consequences for
Brandenburg and Saxony goes beyond.
What would it be for Angela Merkel
mean when the SPD into the opposition
would go to your political
To find your identity again? Even now
becomes the dwindling international
Chancellor's influence registered because
the end of their term of office is foreseeable.
How would it be
if they only have a minority government
would lead? But what
would early federal elections
with the associated
Power vacuum and the uncertain
Exit for the role of Germany
mean of which given the
many crises rather more than less
Leadership and commitment expected
becomes? So it shows that the voting decision
in two small Germans
Federal states follow up in
world politics can have.
That the elections of all times
September 1, the 80th anniversary of
German attack on Poland, take place,
gives them a special one anyway
Importance. One becomes everywhere
watch closely in Europe,
how strong the democratic civil society
against those forces
will claim that again
"Germany first" shout and the
Calling European unification into question.
Politics Page 4
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2 Donutnewspaper Number 202 3 August 1st / April 1st September 2019
In search of summer - we start in Berlin and travel to the
near East. Our destination shortly before the election: Vogelsang in Brandenburg.
The last Russian soldiers left East Germany 25 years ago.
From the secret town in the forest near Vogelsang, which once housed 15,000 people
lived, only a few traces remain. About a difficult neighborhood
Text: Frank Junghänel; Photos: Paulus Ponizak
Suddenly they were gone. You get that too
hear when you go to Vogelsang for the Russian
Neighbors asks. Not at all
big questions, because the place on the railway track
between Zehdenick and Templin has only 76 inhabitants.
A couple of farmsteads on the right and left of the B109, and that's it
one through. But there was another bird song, that one
Address itself was written in Cyrillic letters. Es
was north of the village in a curve of the Havel,
who look young and fresh through the landscape of the
Uckermark meanders. In the weddings of the cold
During the war, 15,000 lived in this secret city in the forest
Soldiers. Sometimes a few thousand more, sometimes a few thousand
less, depending on the world situation. The Vogelsang garrison
was one of the largest bases outside the Soviet Union.
Tanks and howitzers were waiting in the huge halls
and missiles with their crews on the
Emergency. A good hour away from Berlin. And then
the emergency took place without her.
“We didn't notice much,” says Reiner
Lebelt, a robust man of 83 years, who soon after
the turn as a liberal democrat to the mayor of
Vogelsang was chosen. “It was no longer in operation
than usual, army trucks were always driving around here. "
At some point he was with a few people in the forest
cycled to see what's going on. "The goods
path. Everything empty. ”There was no roll call, no handover
to the authorities, no brass band, no do swidanja.
"You have quietly disappeared," says Lebelt and sounds
almost melancholy. It was all 25 years ago.
On August 31, 1994, the Soviet Army withdrew its troops
from East Germany officially ended. A total of
more than half a million soldiers and officers entered
start their journey home with their families. As the soldiers
went, not only 10,000 dogs and cats remained
back, but also a lot of concrete and steel. In front
But above all memories of the people around them
they lived. It's not that easy
as you will see, not even today.
Mario Hoffmann has the material legacy
prescribed. The Donut from the Friedrichshain,
dressed in cargo pants, rain jacket and hiking boots,
organizes guided tours through the
Ghost town in the forest, always at the end of August, for the anniversary
of the deduction. Has the mandate of the Brandenburgische
Property management covering the huge area
gradually privatized after neither from the
Ecovillage has become something from the hazardous waste dump
In terms of area, it corresponds to the Russian Vogelsang
roughly in the districts of Friedrichshain and Mitte.
Hoffmann knows all the data and facts about the garrison, he
knows exactly which property was built and when
what purpose it served. Even where nothing has been done for a long time
more stands because more and more is torn down, collapses,
disappears, Hoffmann knows the story
behind every clearing in the forest. He knows about them
former military importance, calls regiments,
Structures, use. It sounds like this: “The
The 25th Panzer Division had some independent units
from chemical services to field bakery
in their stock. In an emergency, it would have been under the
20. Guard army or be able to act independently. "
When Hoffmann of the "development of the tank units"
speaks, drives one on this peaceful
Sunday morning to the clack-clack of the woodpecker
one time the cold war in the limbs.
We trudge on the beaten path through the undergrowth,
run for miles on dead straight concrete roads,
crossed by other dead straight concrete streets
become. There were once along these supply routes
550 buildings, spread over twelve military towns,
as the individual bases were called. Based
of the rows of poplars are still the former avenues
to guess. There were schools, kindergartens, hospitals there,
a maternity ward, sewage treatment plants, cultural centers,
Cinemas, mansions for the senior officers and one
Residential district with five-storey prefabricated buildings for
the middle ranks. The common soldiers came
in dormitories with up to a hundred beds under them
On the site of the
Vogelsang garrison: the
Hobby researcher Mario Hoffmann.
didn't even have their own locker. From the barracks
there is hardly anything left. "Here was a boiler house",
says Mario Hoffman and points to a meadow
"There were pigsties and greenhouses there."
The garrison was completely self-sufficient, a
Piece of the Soviet Union in the sand of Brandenburg. With administration,
Shops and a headquarters of the military intelligence service
GRU. This house, too, with its holding cells
in the basement has long since disappeared. 15 years ago
the area for the compensation project for the motorway expansion
certainly. Whenever on the Donut
Ring the route is expanded and nature is concreted,
a stain in Vogelsang must be "unsealed" to the same extent
become. In this way some of the former became
Tank halls converted into bat quarters.
Where once the heavy chariots were parked
now these filigree creatures have found shelter.
The garages were buried underground and
provided with a grass cover. Only the small entry slots witness
of their new use.
Mario Hoffmann was the first twenty years ago
Malauf the abandoned garrison, actually out
photographic interest. He is 48 years old, his holidays
he usually had with his grandma's close friends during the GDR era
Storkow spent. The Russians were omnipresent there too.
Their bases were in effect after the withdrawal
as so-called lost places, lost places, and the photo amateurs their passion
Live out for decay and Soviet kitsch
could. Every bust of Lenin is a supermodel.
But his interest continued and now it is listening
no longer open. Hoffmann, who works full-time in schools,
Nursing homes and kindergartens provided with lunch,
became a military historian in his spare time
researches in archives, researches in the network, exchanges ideas
with experts. On the website heimatgalerie.de
he has documented the findings on Vogelsang.
His three closest comrades on this matter
are singles, two of whom have not been long
Wife and child. You have to be careful, says Hoffmann,
the line between madness and hobby is thin.
Moving like the stalker in Andrej Tarkowski's film
we choose a zone away from the main routes
Decay and reawakening. In the shade of the birch trees
Aspens and pines that are the first to get the battered
Reclaiming the terrain, rotting the remaining walls.
Behind concrete barriers and trampled
Barbed wire dives into a huge bunker in the middle of the forest
with sliding doors, one for MarioHoffmann
Has explanation. Were here from April to September of the
1959 Russian nuclear weapons stationed, of what
not even the GDR leadership knew anything
R5 M (SS 3) missiles had a range
of up to 1200 kilometers and were on targets in
France and Great Britain addressed. In the bunkers
they are stored and assembled, the potential
Starting positions are somewhere in the forest, says Mario
Hoffmann. He is still looking.
The GDR not only knew nothing about the first nuclear missiles,
which were to be followed by others later. she knew
very little at all about what's going on on the bases
the Soviet Army played. She wasn't even
informs how many such objects are on
their territory even existed during an inventory
after the withdrawal, there were over 1,100 properties
in more than 600 places in the country. Most agreed
around Berlin, in 237 places today
Brandenburg. The Western Group of the Soviet Armed Forces,
as they called themselves from 1988 onwards, was the elite troop
the army. In the end it comprised 380,000 soldiers
and 170,000 civilians. Most of the deployment costs
the GDR had to bear four billion
Mark a year. But nobody should know that either. So
everyone made his own picture. Liberator, brother,
Occupier. Depending on. Friends, Soviets, Russians. Of
most of them were neither feared nor loved.
They have been ignored. Sometimes you saw "Muschkoten",
as some called them derogatory, on hot days
the siding in the open doors of the freight wagons
Squat while facing the Reichsbahn express train
held. They didn't look like war winners.
Peter Keibel saw the Red Army in the spring
1945 came to the area. He was then 15 years old
soon it will be ninety what you can do with his stately
Occurrence does not notice at all. 35 years
he was chief forester in the Zehdenicker forest. To the Russians
he has his own opinion. “The fighting one
Troop didn't cause any problems, ”he says,“ they did
only looking for soldiers. But then the entourage came
and a lot of shit happened under alcohol. "
In March 1949, fresh from forest school in
Eberswalde, received the order, north of Vogelsand
to cut down a huge area. 800 forest workers
were assigned to him, equipped with shot saws. "The
was a healthy forest that survived the war unharmed
had ”, says Keibel, who at the time considered the order oppressive
felt. The wood went as a reparation payment
to the Soviet Union. Aligned on the cleared area
the Russians set up a firing range, which is then the nucleus
formed for the later garrison. In the difference
to other locations such as Wünsdorf or Jüterbog,
which were built on former Wehrmacht barracks,
Vogelsang was built next to the practice area in the middle
in the forest, partly under trees. That was also the reason
Donutnewspaper Number 202 3 August 1st / April 1st September 2019 3
THE EAST GOES
The summer series of Donutnewspaper, Part 11
THE LITTLE TRAVEL GUIDE: VOGELSANG
Distance from Berlin-Alexanderplatz:
almost 70 kilometers
Duration of the journey by car:
One and a half hours
Number of overnight places: 0
Party with the strongest election result: SPD (local election)
Annual highlight: Easter bonfire
Most important sight:
Wet biotopes in the area
Culinary specialty: pikeperch
Next swimming opportunity:
Mahnkopfsee, two kilometers away
the base as particularly secret and was even for
Spy satellites difficult to locate.
As a forester, Peter Keibel always had with the
Russians do. "They made fire wherever they are
settled down, even in midsummer. ”When extinguishing
the forest fires that inevitably resulted,
but then they would mostly have helped diligently.
In general, the soldiers are in the workforce
Forest and agriculture have been indispensable
Russians were happy to get out of the camp
get. That was the best thing that happened to them
Our wives brought them sausage sandwiches.
They always only got Kascha. "What is
because that? “Buckwheat porridge,” says Peter Keibel. And plowed
they "like the Caraway Turks".
He couldn't say anything bad about the Russians
he would like to emphasize. After all, they are not
came to Germany for fun, that belongs
to the truth about it. Your provincial farewell
1994 with the drunk Yeltsin he found shameful.
“The Russians have shaped my life,” he says.
Even in a tragic way. In the event of a traffic accident in
His son died in 1982 near Neuruppin.
After a party he was up on his motorcycle
crashed into a broken-down truck that had no light
stood on the street. “So should I all Russians
asks Keibel. “I don't even hate the poor one
Guy who fell asleep behind the handlebars. "
BLZ / GALANTY
Altliebel / Rietschen
Unlike the officers, the soldiers felt the same way
GDR not much better than in their homeland. Many were
not older than eighteen, nineteen years. Not all
"Russians" were Russians, leading to racist attacks
They were homesick and humiliated
the veteran. The so-called Dedovshchina,
the rule of the grandfathers, stood for
a systematic repression of the recruits. To
Estimates from 1990 are annual in the GDR
up to 4,000 Soviet soldiers perished
- through accidents, excesses of violence and suicide. Quite a few
tried to desert, but few succeeded
the escape. The most famous deserter if you can
may say so, came from Vogelsang. In 1978 a soldier arrived
in the stolen minibus Barkas to the street Unter
den Linden in Berlin, where he was the pursuer in the hail of bullets
was seriously injured. After that his
Trace in the files of the military intelligence.
Crime related to the Russian
Troops was an absolute taboo in GDR times. Alone
for the years 1976 to 1989 are in the files of the MfS about
27,500 offenses committed by Soviet soldiers on GDR territory
as well as traffic offenses and thefts
Assault, robbery, rape and murder
GDR justice had no access to the perpetrators. It was true
Right of the occupiers. The Russians, it is said, had in
made short work of particularly severe cases.
As the Donut Filmmaker Stefanie Trambow together
with her husband Maxim Stepanov before five
Years after contemporary witnesses for their documentary “Lenin
inVogelsang “, reported on the Russian side
almost only former officers and their wives and
Children. You all have the best memories of that
GDR. Anna Revutsky still remembers how in the cinema of
Vogelsang went into labor, Andrei Balyan has gone
bought records in Zehdenick, and Vladimir Alyakin,
a former colonel, pervaded with self-conscious
Steps down the ruins of the staff building
Office, my desk, my window. ”A moving one
historical perspective is offered by Filipp Zharkoy,
At the Groß Dölln airfield:
Birgit Halle, Karin and Manfred
Lentz, Siegfried Haase (from left).
when he reports on the attack by the Wehrmacht
Fought through the whole war in 1941 until the storming of Berlin
Has. From 1967 to 1972 he was then in Vogelsang
stationed. "A difficult time", he says, "always alarms,
Exercises, always tense. "
Stefanie Trambow, born in 1982, comes from herself
Zehdenick, she only knew the Russians from stories
of her grandparents and wanted to know what
remember the people in Vogelsang today, on the one hand
like on the other side. With the Germans it is
not been so easy to gain confidence says
you. Many preliminary talks were necessary. And then too
some women would have remained silent. The word rape
did not have to be pronounced. A total of
Stefanie has 50 hours of video and audio material
Trambow collected. So diverse are the emotions
of the locals versus the Russians too
be, one thing has struck her: the more people get involved earlier
the Russians had to deal with, the better theirs is today
Opinion about them, and vice versa.
What a reason the west
to put it so broadly, present-day Russia
viewed much more critically than many East Germans
to do. The ambivalence of commanded brotherhood
Manfred Lentz had and lived everyday life in mind when he
a year ago together with two colleagues that
Initiated the project “The Russians as Neighbors”.
Lentz, gray beard, baseball cap, hiking vest, is only in
came to the area when the Russians were already gone.
After completing his degree, he decided to work as a political scientist
West Berlin specialized in the GDR and the Soviet Union. Thirty
Years ago it became his field of research
go, because for him it doesn't work without it either,
He is now doing further private research. There were family ties
to the Uckermark, and so the 69-year-old is together
with his wife Karin, a retired
Public prosecutor, moved to the village of Kurtschlag in 1995,
which, like Vogelsang, is now a district of
Zehdenick is. Birgit grew up in Kurtschlag
Halle, 61, short copper-red hair, long as a teacher
worked in Potsdam and now lives in the neighboring village.
The third in their research network is Siegfried
Haase, also 69 years old. Haase was only three kilometers
born further, in Groß Dölln, that was already at
Schorfheide heard. After years in Berlin, where he was taking
worked as a technician at the Deutsches Theater
he went to his parents' house some time ago
returned. Haase's passion is metal art. Be
Hair turned gray early on, is in a portrait
the local newspaper to read about the "Heide-Rebell".
1984 was when the Russians on the outskirts of his father
to death and one from the mother as compensation
A load of coal and a few canned goods dropped.
With Peter Keibel the son, here the father - and again
no trace of neighborhood hatred. “I don't tend
for generalization, ”says Siegfried Haase.
They have around fifty conversations with residents
three led. Lentz has arranged everything, and now lies
a carefully edited and illustrated work from 160
Pages before that on the portal kurtschlag.de in the net
is published. The interviews are very different
run, says Siegfried Haase, "depending on
whether you are in the GDR as system compatible
or felt like a victim ”. The conclusion was:
"We didn't love the Russians, but it was okay."
Contacts between the villagers and the Russians
I'm most likely to have it outside of the compulsory courses
given when fishing on the lake, when swimming or also
in the pub.
from cigarettes to Kalashnikov was on
End of having it all. But mostly they are under
stayed. If you didn't want to, you didn't have to
Have contact. Private encounters were welcome
anyway not. “You shouldn't see how good it is
we went, "says Siegfried Haase," and we shouldn't
find out how they are doing. "
Birgit Halle tells about two women from the village,
the one at the bakery with a Russian on the bank
sat and sang songs. One day the soldier came
and said in German: “Our friendship is closed
great, I have to go now. ”Women never have it
Despite such stories, the political scientist wonders
well, why the Ostler look at the Russians so benevolently,
although they did against the GDR in the autumn of 89
took to the streets. This contradiction is in
all the interviews never came up. "Without
the Russians would not have existed in the GDR ”, says
Lentz. Siegfried Haase, who was then part of the citizens' movement
committed, replies: “The Russians were for
us not the problem. There were many here who had their GDR like that
wanted to have. "Lentz:" That is a bit too short-sighted,
Siegfried. ”Haase:“ And then the people are too
grew up with such skepticism towards America. ”That
play a role subliminally. “When you think of the
Russians, it is said, speaks to the Americans
it is no different. ”Now KarinLentz intervenes:
“That also has to do with nostalgia. Mancontain the
Good memories. ”Before something comes on the table
What was good about the Russian occupation, says Birgit Halle:
"They are simply different mentalities."
In the forest near Groß Dölln was in the early 1950s
Association with the garrison Vogelsang the largest and
most modern Russian airfield outside the Soviet Union
been erected. In the 1980s, the
almost four kilometers long main runway as an emergency landing strip
expanded for the space glider Buran.
The bombers that were supposed to take off in Groß Dölln are
Long since scrapped, a space shuttle never landed.
The kilometer-long concrete track has been in place for a few years
equipped with solar panels that cover a whole small town
can electrify. But even 25 years after
Troop withdrawal is made from kerosene at the airfield
pumped out of the groundwater. Are in the underground
the Russians are still present for a long time, even if
over there the heather blooms so beautifully.
Many protected bird species can now be heard here
and, if you're lucky, to see too, says Siegfried
Haase, who knows his way around as an ornithologist. To the
rare inhabitants of the open countryside, like them
can be found everywhere on the abandoned bases,
include, for example, hoopoe, nightjar and
Skylark, so much for Vogelsang.
personally doesn't know a single Russian, although he does
Learned her language for 14 years, unfortunately unsuccessfully.
4* Donutnewspaper Number 202 3 August 1st / April 1st September 2019
Andreas Kalbitz at an event in Falkensee, Brandenburg. In another campaign speech he said: “The AfD is the last evolutionary chance for this country. After that, the only thing left to do is put on your helmet. And I do not want that."
DPA / RALF HIRSCHBERGER
Kalbitz was with NPD people at the neo-Nazi demonstration in Athens
Before the state election in Brandenburg, new serious allegations against the AfD top candidates are known. He admits that he was at the event
VonJens Blankennagel, Potsdam
The Brandenburg AfD
Top candidate Andreas
Kalbitz will always be
previous contacts again
accused of being in the neo-Nazi scene.
Nevertheless, his party stands
in polls at around 20 percent and
with the SPD ruling in Potsdam
in 1st place.
Just before the eagerly awaited
State elections on Sunday in
Brandenburg and Saxony become
new allegations are now known. On Friday
made the mirror public,
that Kalbitz, who went to the far right
Wing of the AfD around the Thuringian
Country manager Björn Höcke heard on
January 27, 2007 in Athens
supposed to get there on a march
Greek "Patriotic Alliance"
to participate. It is about
a right-wing extremist alliance in
Environment of the neo-Nazi party
"Golden morning glow".
The NPD chief was there too
As a source for this information
Der Spiegel calls the German Embassy.
There was a liaison officer there
of the Federal Criminal Police Office
drafted a report in which it
means that "14 German neo-Nazis"
were on site, including the one at that time
NPD boss Udo Voigt and Kalbitz.
Was against an NPD man
Andreas Kalbitz: He was
Born in Munich in 1972
and served as a for twelve years
Paratrooper of the German Armed Forces
in the boy
Union and the CSU active.
Then he was with the far right
according to Spiegel later determined for years,
because he was suspected of having one
second National Socialist underground
The men are said to be in Athens
stayed in the same hotel. As
there at night one on a balcony
Swastika flag hung up
there was a police operation.
Later, people probably threw
Molotov cocktails from the anarchist scene
in the hotel entrance
and on the balcony with the flag.
"Yes, I was in Athens then",
said Kalbitz the Donutnewspaper.
“But I'm not with the so-called
NPD tour group on the way
been. "He did notice
that also NPD people
Place were. “But there were thousands
People from all over Europe. ”About
the demo said the 46-year-old: “In
the subsequent evaluation of this
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