Who wrote the song Suge

Youth culture and pop music have long since become synonyms. That was not always so. It was only with rock'n'roll in the 1950s that music acquired a symbolic function that has become characteristic of the culture of young people. And only the medium of music gradually gave youth culture the autonomy it has today. Nevertheless, the relationship between youth and music goes back much further in history.

When adolescents left their first traces in musical culture, the word existed youth not at all and not even the idea of ​​a more or less pronounced transition phase between child and adult. In 1852, the Leipzig music publishing house Carl Rühle published number 28 in the series Musical 20-pfennig library a “salon piece for pianoforte for two hands” by Thekla Badarzewska-Baranowska, who was just eighteen at the time. It is entitled “La Priére d'une Vierge” - the prayer of a virgin. Now it has already had one or the other case of a musical one Child prodigy given. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, for example, wrote his first compositions when he was five years old. But the miracle here was precisely that a child was apparently able to compose and make music with the maturity of an adult. “La Priére d'une Vierge” on the other hand, with its somewhat kitschy inwardness, is anchored in the world of experience, at least of the female part of a group of adolescents that was by no means small in numbers in the mid-19th century, for whom this phase of life with the mostly unloved experience domestic piano retreats. The piano lessons were for the girls from a good family as it were the counterpart to the military service of the sons, an indispensable compulsory program. The first signs of age-specific cultural connections emerged behind the façade of middle class, even if they were not yet perceived as such at the time. Although making music at home was initially a relatively exclusive matter for the educated bourgeoisie, its cultural role model effect went so far that by the middle of the century a piano could be found even in many proletarian households. Anyone who could somehow let their daughter learn to play the piano, because that increased the chances on the marriage market considerably. "A certain repertoire of songs and piano pieces is counted as the indispensable trousseau of the daughters, right down to the lower classes," - it says in a contemporary view. (Gumprecht 1876: 20)

With its evocative title, “La Priére d'une Vierge” was not only the epitome of the obligatory serenade at the prestigious evening events in the good room of the bourgeoisie and all those who wanted to belong. The piece turned out to be an orgy of soulful indulgence in a beautiful sound, which could be had with relatively simple technical means. The pitch space is far-reaching, which leads the left and right hand to the edge zones of their half of the keyboard. Taking possession of the instrument in its full breadth not only surrounds the performance with the irresistible aura of virtuosity. It also requires a physical effort that accentuates the charms of the virgin daughter at the piano in a pleasing manner. And all of this with a technical effort that was manageable even for less gifted natures. So it's no wonder that the loose-leaf version of the original edition from 1852 was printed in countless editions. In 1859 the piece was published as a sheet music supplement to the Revue et Gazetta Musicale in Paris, with which it began its triumphal march around the world. In the decades that followed, none of the piano albums continued on the market by music publishers was missing. In 1864 alone it was found in seven different editions. And this boom lasted well into the 20th century without a year having passed without a new release somewhere. A total of 140 publishers had the original version for piano in their program, plus versions for every conceivable instrument. Nobody has ever counted the million times the total circulation or has even been able to determine exactly how many different arrangements for how many different line-ups the “prayer of a virgin” has meanwhile been marketed. The popular internet platform YouTube even today lists over 180 video versions with recordings of the piece. The Polish pianist Thekla Badarzewka-Baranowska, who died at the age of thirty-one, created what is now called a mega-hit with “La Priére d'une Vierge”. It was a testimony of adolescence, which stole itself into the public through the back door, as it were, because even if it was usually the unmarried daughters who played the house music at the piano, neither he left a musical testimony of their youth good taste bourgeois etiquette in the 19th century. “Infantil” was one of the more harmless adjectives with which the piece was criticized. For the musicologist Hugo Riemann, it was an expression of “afterkart that pays homage to the lowest musical instincts of the crowd” (Riemann 1901: 313).

When at the beginning of the 20th century then the phase of growing up as youth entered the public consciousness, this was for a long time characterized by the urge to outgrow it as quickly as possible and to be considered early on as what adolescents are under grown up presented. To be able to share in the pleasures of adults characterized the dynamic of the cultural behavior of adolescents up to the middle of the century. It was music for adults that provided a framework for the emerging youth culture in the first half of the 20th century. The youth music movement launched in the 1910s, on the other hand, with its focus on maintaining folk songs, remained a pedagogical endeavor to educate young people in music, even if the term “musical youth culture” (Jöde 1918) was coined in this context. The youngsters themselves tried to get a foretaste of the joys of adult life first with gramophone and record and then on the radio, because the relevant amusement temples were of course closed to them. From the mid-1930s onwards, swing in particular irresistibly cast a spell over young people. The famous New York “Battles of the Bands” - competitions of the most popular swing big bands - took place in the early evening hours to give young people access. And they poured in by the thousands. Over 20,000 witnessed the legendary competition between the bands of Chick Webb and Benny Goodman on May 11, 1937, from which Chick Webb's band emerged victorious. In the 1930s, a youth culture emerged around the swing big bands that, with its secret band enthusiasm for music, its meticulous dress code and specific jargon, did not stop at occupied Europe or fascist Germany during the Second World War (cf. the extremely informative study by Mike Zwerin (1985): La tristesse de Saint Louis. Swing under the Nazis and the band "Swing Heil" published by Bernd Polster (1989). Jazz in National Socialism). The French zazous or the German swing youth were the most active representatives of this youth culture in Europe.

Although the sporty, body-focused dance style - jitterbug and lindy hop - drew an age-specific borderline on the dance floor and was reserved for young people, the culture of swing kids was still an imitative anticipation of adulthood and was shaped by the desire to participate in the The amusements, secrets and privileges of adults tear the bridges to childhood behind. But since the big band variant of swing was the music of the ballrooms, to which young people had access, if at all, only until 10:00 p.m. and accompanied by adults, the record and the privately organized handling of music were at the center of youth culture Behavior. It was only when the cinema chains in the USA opened their houses for musical show events in order to create space for the young people's enthusiasm for music that what until then had mainly taken place behind closed apartment doors became public. Since no alcohol was served, the film temples were considered suitable for young people.

Here, in New York's Paramount Theater on Broadway, on December 30, 1942, Frank Sinatra, the sensationally young singer of the Big Band of Tommy Dorsey at the time, provided a spectacular concert that was one of the first evidence of an independent everyday life and the music-related youth culture anchored in them. The audience, all of them minors, celebrated such an emotionally charged enthusiasm for music that the commentators could not find the words. Sinatra later recalled:

“The noise that greeted me was just deafening. It was a tremendous roar. 5000 kids trampled, screamed, screeched and applauded. I was scared to death. "
(Quotation from Summers / Swan 2005: 135)

For the first time, the world saw screaming fans at the feet of a star. When Sinatra performed here again in October 1944, 35,000 of his supporters, who were denied access to the completely sold-out concert, paralyzed traffic on New York's boulevard. The Bobby Soxers - teenage female Sinatra fans in poodle skirts and rolled-down striped socks - had conquered the public. Her idol was no longer just an unreachable object to be adored, like the actors before. Sinatra had a sounding appearance that could be felt, embraced the body, triggered resonances in the soul and became for these teenage girls a medium of self-awareness that reached their core. Imbued with music, to experience oneself in a very immediate and direct form, which is both private and individual as well as communal and public, to get hold of one's own subjectivity in a sounding form and at the same time, as if through an invisible bond, connected to all of them to be experiencing the same should play an increasingly crucial role in the process of growing up. As a medium for conveying the public and private sphere, individuality and sociality in a development phase in which the socially relevant traits of the self are formed, music has now acquired a status that, accompanied by the media of radio and record, a little later also television, into one of the most powerful socialization bodies in the process of growing up.

What that meant began to become apparent when Elvis Presley first took to the stage on July 17, 1953 at the Bon Air Club in Memphis with “That's Allright Mama” and “Blue Moon of Kentucky”, the two songs from his first single . The idolization of this somewhat shy southern boy reached dimensions already on his first appearance that exceeded any previously known level. From then on, the abnormalities in the cultural behavior of young people were no longer limited to the enthusiasm rituals at concerts, but developed a dynamic that, driven by the media and Hollywood productions such as Rebel Without a Cause (... because they don't know what they're doing, 1955) or Blackboard Jungle (The seeds of violence, 1955), resulted in an increasingly rebellious youth culture. Adolescents for whom the New York Times 1945 the name Teenager (The New York Times, January 7, 1945, 12), discovered on the sound carrier market, in front of the portable radio and as potential consumer goods consumers who were increasingly being courted, for whom a separate youth market was created during this time, that consumption is more than mere consumption of goods. They began to project the problems of adolescence onto the world of consumer goods, which was so obtrusively offered to them, and learned to deal with gain in status, strategies of meaning and differentiation through consumption. Music was a particularly suitable resource for this, because it could be easily integrated into the world of young people. Peter Guralnick, one of Elvis Presley's contemporary witnesses and biographer, later wrote:

"Rock’n’Roll freed us from the past more than you could have thought back then. His energy was explosive [...] It served as an expression of a longing that was not yet precisely defined. He confirmed our own reality ... He was a world where 'crazy, crazy youth' was a common expression and 'wild boogie dancing' was an act of social resistance ... Especially his rampant poses, his ostentatious sexuality, the violence that radio stations ascribed to rock'n'roll in those days, its forbidden and pernicious influence - this made the infallible attraction of rock'n'roll. "(Guralnick 1971: 212)

So music, which actually wanted to be nothing more than entertainment, became, as it were, under the hand a symbol of growing up, in which and on which itself youth began to define. With the advent of rock'n'roll, the culture of young people finally lost its ambivalence between childhood and adulthood. It does not only become independent and autonomous in an age-specific manner, but also into a normative model that, in principle, continues to fool the emerging mass consumer societies into the dream of eternal youth. The consistently youthful age of the protagonists of this novel youth music cult was of decisive importance, even if it was still the A&R (artist & repertoire) departments of the record companies that decided what music was produced and on phonograms, via the radio and finally got access to the public on the stages. But the idols were now hardly older than their audience. The fact that it was adults who controlled the musical forms of expression that young people with rock'n'roll soon believed to be theirs almost all over the world did not initially play a role. In contrast, in the 1960s, when British beat music, especially the Beatles, streamed into the studios and onto the global recording markets. Like every development phenomenon of pop music relevant to youth culture since then, they had initially earned their audience of the same age live and without interference from the adult world in the basement clubs and music bars. In the studio, the self-written songs were only made suitable for the media by empathetic producers such as George Martin for the Beatles. The authentic reproduction of the emotional world and worldview of young people was now at the center of music and made it the main medium of youth culture.

The Beatles' immense success had to do with the fact that they publicly announced the unrestricted victory of adolescents in all domestic areas of conflict. Their music was the loudest that had ever been heard. When the Beatles appeared, it was a single volume orgy without anyone being able to say: “Turn it down!” In their appearance they bundled exactly what put every adult into a state of panic, because they were the textile status symbols of manliness - suit , Tie and collar - with their feminine long hairstyles at a time when every strand of male hair that even touched the ears was already considered effeminate, meticulously transformed into a caricature. And although hardly older than their audience, the Beatles no longer had to allow themselves to be patronized by their success and demonstratively savored this fact in countless interviews in which they did not seem to take anything or anyone seriously. In this way, they embodied in public - unmistakable and unmistakable - what until then had only taken place sporadically and in isolation, the defiant rebellion against patterns of authority, which were legitimized solely by the fact that it had always been so. This strengthened the position of the many little lone warriors in the children's rooms and left the parents helpless in the face of the wave that was running in front of them and was projected into gigantic proportions by the media. The beat groups that sprang up from the ground at the beginning of the sixties, first in England and then in the rest of Europe - West and East - provided the soundtrack for the problematic, contradictory and ambivalent growing up in a rapidly changing society.

The publicly celebrated irritations that accompanied this development in the 1960s and led to the coining of the term “Beatlemania” had to do with the fact that “youth” had become an intensely negotiated problem topic, and to a certain extent this is still the case today also stayed. The fact that young people began to break out of traditional behavior patterns was vehemently discussed in various specialist audiences, among teachers, social pedagogues, sociologists and youth welfare workers, and a majority of the media audience learned about it from their own children.In the construct of the Beatles fan as a pathologically disturbed adolescent who is put into a state of uncontrollable hysteria by music, the youth problem seemed to have found its most tangible expression. In doing so, it was deliberately overlooked that the visual media in particular brought about the behaviors that they portrayed with their snapshots to a not inconsiderable extent. The young music fans, surrounded by photographers and camera teams, acted in a spectacle on an imaginary stage in which they played the leading role. Where else have adolescents been given the same amount of attention? Even then, the thoughtful part of the contemporaries asked themselves the question with regard to the young bands and their audiences:

“Are they revolutionaries or conformists; unsuspecting victims of a sophisticated leisure industry targeting the pitiful remnant of the freedom that this age once promised, leisure; Lost in the planned jungle of show business - or winking Eulenspiegel who live in the cracks and crevices of a fragile system that is not as monolithically fixed as it looks? "(Seuss / Dommermuth / Maier 1965: o.P.)

Even if they were always both, a discourse arose around the music that turned it into a projection surface for the zeitgeist. The fact that this person embodied himself and had to embody himself in youth was now considered a general consensus. From the mid-1960s, topics were negotiated in the songs of youth music, known as rock music, which even the boldest visionaries would not have associated with the music cult of young people a few years earlier. The adolescent screams of screaming teenagers had become the "sound of the American cultural revolution" (Eisen 1969) at the end of the 1960s, literally the voice of a generation that sought the experience of their community, common values ​​and constructions of meaning in music. It was obvious that adolescents confronted the world, which they made sound tangible, with the world that confronted them as reality. And the more they experienced themselves as a social force in the community with like-minded people - more like-minded - the more realistic the claim to live alternative life plans, value patterns and meaningful contexts through music in a way that precedes society, whose future every adolescent Generation embodies, does not leave unchanged. Youth culture and music had become a social force that sparked the hope of changing the world with guitar in hand. Almost all prominent musicians and bands paid tribute to this development in the years 1967-1969. The Beatles released in 1968 as their B-side Single Hey Jew the song revolution and the Rolling Stones contributed in the same month Street Fighting Man from her album Beggars Banquet (1968) contributed a street fighter ballad. Mick Jagger had written the text according to his own testimony at the suggestion of the student leader and pioneer of the New Left, Tariq Ali. Country Joe and the Fish, who were among the pioneers of psychedelic rock in the USA, also provided I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin’-To-Die Rag 1967 one of the most popular protest songs of the anti-Vietnam war movement.

The closer the music, with punk rock, new wave, heavy metal and grunge, got closer to the reality of young people's lives, unfolded in youthful subcultures to which it also provided a framework, the more it differentiated itself into an unmanageable variety of playing styles and styles. It is the "subversion of self-determination" (Bianci 1996) that keeps this process going uninterrupted to this day, even if the constantly changing media focus gives the impression that there is only one wave of young people's enthusiasm for music following the next at ever shorter intervals.

What had changed fundamentally with the generation growing up in the 1980s, however, was the socio-political claim of making music in the various youth cultural contexts. The children of the 68s took up the musically and culturally formulated emancipation claim of their parents, but implemented it in a completely ideology-free, consumer-oriented and hedonistic lifestyle, for which they created a suitable soundtrack with the sequencer-generated loops and computer-controlled rhythm patterns of techno and house. The incessant work on one's own body as a resource for gaining pleasure, which is open to everyone, is the credo that stands behind this music and was developed in the clubs or the raves in ever more extensive dance orgies. The products of the music industry have been transformed into a raw material in the discotheques with a repertoire of creative techniques understood as subversive, which undermines the status of music as packaged finished goods by means of turntables and crossfaders. Mixing, sampling and deconstructing popular hits, for which the decommissioned sequencers of the rock bands of yore provide the thumping bass lines, is used to generate a musical experience that is tied to the live context and thus withdrawn from the traditional exploitation schemes by the music industry .

This shift in the discussion from ideology and the world of cultural symbols to the real level of production and marketing contexts, including piracy on the Internet, is now one of the hallmarks of the most important music-related youth cultures, as can be seen with particular clarity in hip-hop. While the media hype quickly wore out most youth subcultures, the exact opposite happened with hip hop that emerged in the 1980s. The more hectic the culture industry sought to cash in, the more the scene localized itself and participated in the boom with its own commercial ventures that stole the water from established companies on all fronts. With Def Jam Records, founded in 1984 by Rick Rubin, the former DJ of the Beasty Boys and Russell Simmons, who worked with Rush Communication, a management company, various film and television production companies and the fashion lines "Phat Farm", "Argyleculture" and "American Classics" Having built one of the most successful hip-hop empires, a model emerged for many similar operations that are behind the global success story of hip-hop as a kind of do-it-yourself capitalism. Here youth culture becomes a brand-conscious celebration of a capitalism of those who have missed out on things, which takes into its own hands what is not to be forced from the welfare state. Although Bad Boy Entertainment from rapper Sean Combs, Death Row Records from Dr. Dre and Suge Knights, Ruthless Records from Gangsta Rapper Eazy-E, Lench Mob Records from Ice Cube, Doggy Style Records from rapper Snoop "Snoopy" Dog or Roc-A-Fella Records from Jay-Z - to name just a few of the most important - with their associated clothing lines such as Sean Comb's brand “Sean John”, Snoops “Snoopy” Dogs “Snoop Dogg Clothing” and Jay-Z's “Roc-A-Wear” are nothing other than boutique capitalism, only more successful and with higher sales, they managed to preserve an alternative image.

This has made a significant contribution to the fact that hip-hop has been able to regenerate again and again and become one of the longest-lived youth cultures. Despite the commercial pressure, which of course was not absent - every major record company has had a hip-hop track in their catalog since the 1990s - there was no question of a sell-out here because commercial counter-pressure came from within. However, the subcultural counter-discourse has narrowed down to basic antisocial values ​​- hyper-sexualism, homophobia, glorification of violence and an excessively macho masculinity that reduced the complex and contradicting dialogue of the early years to a few basic patterns. The iconography of hip-hop, as it has been especially since MTVs Yo, MTV raps! unfolded in innumerable music videos, now bears all the traits of the projection of an unreal, infantile gangster world, which only knows how to counter marginalization with sexualized omnipotence fantasies due to constant oversubscription.

Nevertheless, the following also applies here: In a society that is characterized by growing individualization processes, in which the increase in opportunities for action for the individual is combined with his simultaneous detachment from social milieus, in which individual cost-benefit thinking integration patterns such as tradition, social rituals and has largely supplanted utopias, the sociality created by music in the culture of young people with its community rituals and the ritualization of the body as a form of self-experience provides an irreplaceable framework for growing up, because individuality can only be experienced in society, but the state of society is increasingly problematic makes. It is therefore not surprising that this framework eventually becomes more and more problematic.