What is the name of a tumor removal operation

Causes of Cancer:

Name: Svenja Drexler, Kinga Plocienniczak & Anastasiya Samarchuk, 01/20/2014

Cancer is a medical field where a lot of research is still needed, but a lot of knowledge has already been gained. In theory, any organ in the human body can be prone to cancer. Carcinogenic substances, organisms and radiation are called Carcinogens. A distinction is made between Initiating carcinogens (cancer-causing substances) and PhD studentsCarcinogens (development-promoting substances).

Favorable factors include obesity and high alcohol consumption.

The main causes of cancer are:

Poisons (including arsenic acid, asbestos, benzene, alcohol, nickel salts, crude oil)

Viruses (including HI viruses, HP viruses)

Rays (e.g. radioactive radiation, UV rays)

In order to better understand the effects of environmental factors, it is helpful to understand how cancer develops. Cancer changes the genome of a body cell. Carcinogenic substances cause DNA damage and lead to Mutations.

In addition to the external risk factors, the genetic makeup of each person is also important. Thus, every person is differently susceptible to cell division disorders.

During cell division, errors in the DNA can occur, even without any recognizable external influences. Errors in reading the DNA can occur not only on the DNA itself, but also on its "packaging" and promote the development of cancer without damaging the genes themselves.

Over time, cells accumulate more and more mutations. On average, ten changes to the genetic material are necessary to transform a healthy cell into a Tumor cell close.

Cancer incidence in Germany / 100,000 people:

Type of cancer

Occurrence in women

Occurrence in men

A total of

349,9

450,0

Oral cavity and throat

5,9

19,1

esophagus

2,1

9,0

stomach

8,6

16,8

Intestines

39,4

63,0

pancreas

9,8

13,4

Larynx

0,9

6,9

lung

24,3

60,6

Malignant melanoma

16,6

17,1

Woman's mammary gland

123,1

1,0

cervix

9,5

Uterine body

17,2

Ovaries

12,2

prostate

110,9

Testicles

9,5

kidney

8,2

16,5

bladder

9,9

37,1

Nervous system

5,3

7,7

thyroid

8,6

3,5

Hodgkin's disease

2,0

2,7

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

9,8

13,7

Leukemias

7,9

12,4

Using the example of colon cancer, one can understand many general factors that cause cancer:

It is now known that around 90% of colon cancers develop from initially benign colon polyps. This degeneration from intestinal polyp (adenoma) to cancer (carcinoma) can take around 10 years. Scientists refer to this development as the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The cause of this are successive gene changes (mutations) on the mucous membrane cells of the intestinal wall. They ultimately lead to the loss of the cells' natural growth control, so that they can spread as cancer cells in a malignant and destructive manner.

Changes in genes can also be inherited from the parents (familial risk). Then it takes significantly less time for genetic damage to accumulate, so that cancer can develop here at a young age.

Cell division as a weak point

Despite sophisticated security systems, damage can occasionally occur during cell division: During the duplication of genetic information before cell division, transmission errors occur. This leads to changes in the genetic material, the so-called mutations.

Mutations in the genes that regulate and control cell growth are critical. If a series of such critical gene changes occur over time, the affected cell ultimately gets out of control - it divides more frequently, and all cells derived from it multiply uncontrollably. A cancerous tumor develops. Characteristic features of cancer cells are uncontrollable multiplication, invasive growth, detachment from their own cell structure and the associated formation of metastases (daughter tumors) in other organs.

Adenoma-carcinoma sequence

First a benign, later a malignant tumor develops. The development from healthy intestinal mucosa to intestinal polyps and on to malignant colon cancer takes place in several steps.

A single cell in the intestinal mucosa begins to divide in an uncontrolled manner due to several critical changes in its genetic make-up. More and more cells emerge at this location, all of which are derived from the one cell.

The cells begin to push each other, which can be recognized by a small thickening of the intestinal mucosa. This creates a small, benign tumor, a mucosal polyp (adenoma).

The cells, which are constantly dividing, grow into the interior of the intestine: the intestinal polyp can now be easily recognized during a colonoscopy. The polyp is still growing benign, i.e. it does not break through the natural boundaries of the intestinal wall, does not destroy other wall layers or even adjacent tissue.

After a while, individual cells of the polyp suffer further, serious genetic changes: They now ignore the natural limitations in the tissue; they grow invasively and become malignant cancer cells (carcinoma). Cancer cells penetrate the entire intestinal wall, detach from their cell structure and allow the blood and lymph fluid to drive them to other parts of the body, where they form new cancer colonies (metastases).

Surgery to remove the cancer

The tumor is surgically removed with a scalpel, whereby parts of the surrounding tissue and also the lymph nodes have to be removed in order to completely remove the tumor and the tumor cells that may have already penetrated further. If the surrounding tissue and lymph nodes are also removed, the risk of the tumor spreading again is reduced. During the operation, the chances of success often depend on the experience and skills of the surgeon, as tumor removal surgery often takes a lot of time and a lot of patience. An operation is particularly effective in the early stages, but at an advanced stage, further chemotherapy or radiation therapy must be considered in order to completely combat the cancer.

chemotherapy

The active substances of chemotherapy penetrate the cells directly through cell poisons and thus the metabolism of the body, thus preventing the mitotic cell division of the tumor cells and thus the further growth of the tumor. These cell poisons mainly penetrate into an active metabolism with cells that divide a lot.
The hair cells also belong to the particularly active cells. Thus, chemotherapy has a side effect of hair loss (including eyelashes and eyebrows). Other side effects include nausea and vomiting and fatigue. For this reason, drugs to protect the organism are administered before therapy. Chemotherapy is usually cyclical, with the patient being given his medication at certain time intervals. The patient goes through, for example, 5 cycles every 3 weeks or 8 cycles every two weeks, with tests being carried out between the cycles to determine whether the tumor cells could be successfully "stopped" and whether the tumor has regressed.

radiotherapy

With radiation therapy, some cancer cells are completely destroyed, but most are only prevented from growing. It should be noted that predominantly only cancer cells are irradiated in order to protect the surrounding tissue. The greatest effect can be achieved if the tumor is irradiated from several directions at the same time and the incident rays are crossed. Radiation therapy, like chemotherapy, provides specific doses at specific time intervals. The side effects of radiation therapy initially affect the skin, which generally becomes sensitive, dries and reddened. However, this skin sensitivity disappears after the therapy is completed, and the skin regenerates again.

Hormone therapy

For certain tumors, such as breast cancer in women, hormone therapy is very helpful, as the hormone estrogen stimulates the tumor in this area. The hormone therapy inhibits the body's own hormones, whereby the tumor, which is hormone-dependent, is inhibited in its growth. In general, hormone therapy has very few side effects, but the hormone balance can change, which can lead to further tumor formation, especially in women in the uterus.

Hyperthermia

In hyperthermia, the whole body or certain parts of the body are overheated. The area or body is heated to around 42 degrees Celsius. This therapy is used more as a complementary therapy, whereby the heating of certain areas can increase the effect of radiation and chemotherapy. In addition, the heat-sensitive cancer cells should be removed in hyperthermia. Hyperthermia is particularly successful as a result of radiation and chemotherapy.