He pulls on my leg

The nervous system of the legs

Sciatic nerve: The sciatic nerve

The sciatic nerve is one of the strongest nerves in the human body. The sciatic nerve is also one of the most troublesome nerves.

Origin and course

The sciatic nerve arises in the Spinal cord segments the lumbar spine. From here it crosses the so-called ischial hole before the nerve pulls towards the hollow of the knee. The ischial hole is actually a hole in the iliac bone (foramen ischiadicum majus), which is located approximately in the middle of the buttocks. The sciatic nerve is covered by both the Glutes as well as through the Hamstrings (Sciocrural muscles), which it also supplies at the same time.

Diseases

If the nerve is squeezed or irritated by a bulging disc or a herniated disc, the doctor speaks of one Sciatica. Sciatica usually goes along with it Sensory disturbances and numbness in the legs.

If the sciatic nerve is damaged or even severed as a result of thigh and pelvic fractures or a dislocation of the sacrum and iliac joint, it can be serious Signs of paralysis be the consequence. If the sciatic nerve is injured, those affected are no longer able to bend the affected leg.

Femoral nerve: The femoral nerve

Origin and course

The femoral nerve arises in the area of ​​the first and fourth lumbar vertebrae, from where it emerges to the thigh pulls. It not only supplies the front and inner thighs, but also the metatarsus.

Diseases

Injury to the femoral nerve causes serious damage, as it is much of the Thigh muscles supplied. The result is not only movement disorders, but also paralysis. A active bending of the hip joint is not possible anymore, which is why those affected can no longer stand up on their own if they are on their backs. In addition, the knee can no longer be straightened.

Obturator nerve: The lumbar nerve

Origin and course

The lumbar nerve (obturator nerve) arises between the second and fourth lumbar vertebrae, from where it runs over the pelvis to the inner thigh.

Diseases

First and foremost are Newborn affected by obturator paralysis as the nerve is squeezed at birth. As a result of the paralysis, the leg falls outwards in the supine position. Children try to compensate for the paralysis by moving the leg outwards while crawling.

Tibial nerve: The tibial nerve

Origin and Approach

The tibial nerve (Nervus tibialis) is a Branch of the sciatic nervethat pulls up to the hollow of the knee. In this area he is responsible for the sensitive care of the calf.

Diseases

If the tibial nerve is damaged, the calf muscles fail so that those affected can no longer stand on the forefoot. This phenomenon is referred to in medicine as heel and claw foot. Those who suffer from this can no longer fully put their foot down. Movement is only possible on the heel.

Common peroneal nerve: The fibula nerve

Origin & function

The fibula nerve (nervus peroneus communis) is one of the two main branches of the sciatic nerve. It pulls over the outside of the knee before dividing again in the calf area. The branches of the fibula nerve supply both the shin muscles and the muscles that are responsible for stretching the toes.

Diseases

Damage to the fibrous nerve is known in the medical field as Peroneal paralysis designated. Since the muscles that lift the foot and toes are paralyzed, a classic equinus foot position occurs. The gait pattern resembles a "stepper or stork walk" because the affected people move on tiptoe.

Since the fibula nerve also supplies the short and long fibula muscles, it can damage the nerve for one Clubfoot to be responsible. In this clinical picture, there is also a disorder of the posterior tibial muscle (Musculus tibialis posterior), which is responsible for the inward rotation of the foot. In a clubfoot, the foot is permanently turned inward. The disorder can be both acquired and congenital.

If the fibula nerve is injured, it is called an acquired clubfoot. A congenital clubfoot is caused by

  • an unfavorable embryo position in the uterus
  • a small amount of amniotic fluid
  • Birth defects.

Usually there is also an equinus foot position.

Polyneuropathy - when the nerves in the leg go crazy

Nerve pain in the legs is uncomfortable. Especially if the symptoms cause restlessness even while sitting. In this case it is a so-called Polyneuropathy. Unlike a nerve injury, polyneuropathy is associated with other diseases. Around 30 percent of patients who have polyneuropathy suffer from diabetes.

Other causes of polyneuropathy:

As a rule, those affected feel a Tingling in the legssometimes accompanied by numbness. Occasionally, patients have a staggering gait because they can no longer see their limbs.

Polyneuropathy is treated symptomatically. For example, there is a Vitamin B deficiency before, appropriate food supplements must be administered. Occupational and physiotherapeutic measures can also be useful in the treatment of polyneuropathy.