Why did the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 fail?

Zeitbilder 5/6, textbook

tionaries have no chance against the massive use of the military and cannons. In Hungary, Lajos Kossuth called for a separate Hungarian government at the beginning of March. Under the pressure of revolutionary events, Ferdinand I agreed. Many Hungarians now demanded that the connection to the overall monarchy be limited to a pure personal union. Within the Kingdom of Hungary, however, differences also broke out between the Magyars and the other nationalities. The conflict came to a head, particularly with the Croats. After unsuccessful attempts at mediation, Croatian troops invaded Hungary, and Ferdinand I declared the government in Budapest deposed and parliament dissolved. The revolution fails The military successes of the imperial armies in Prague, Upper Italy and Vienna, the contradictions within the revolutionary movement, the retirement of the peasants and the national fragmentation indicated the failure of the revolution in Austria as early as the autumn of 1848. Nevertheless, Ferdinand I abdicated on December 2nd. Franz Joseph I succeeded him on the throne. His political goal was to finally overcome the revolution. In Hungary in particular, the suppression of the revolution met with fierce opposition. Imperial troops marched into Hungary in mid-December 1848. The Hungarian Reichstag then proclaimed Hungary an independent state. Attempts to get international aid failed, however. The counter-revolutionary powers, on the other hand, exercised solidarity. With Russian help, the imperial army was finally able to defeat the Hungarian revolution. This was followed by an extremely bloody criminal court with numerous executions and the submission of Hungary to a centralized regime. The revolutionary movement in northern Italy was also finally suppressed in 1849. While the counter-revolution was taking hold, the Reichstag was still discussing the foundations of a constitution and a catalog of basic civil rights. This Reichstag had been meeting in Kremsier since autumn 1848 and committed itself to popular sovereignty in a draft constitution. To solve the nationality question, he proposed the establishment of a people's and state chamber, which should protect the interests of the state as a whole and those of the nationalities. But the Kremser design was never realized. The Reichstag was dissolved in March 1849, followed by a government-enacted constitution (Verfassungsoktroy). Despite the failure, the revolutions were not without consequences. A comprehensive administrative reform was carried out in Austria in 1848/49. For interior, teaching, trade and agriculture were z. B. 1849 new ministries created. The judiciary was separated from the administration in all areas. The Supreme Court took over the powers of the Supreme Judicial Bureau. The peasants' liberation remained in place. In the initial phase, the liberal bourgeoisie represented the core of the revolutionary movements. But the working class also experienced a first broader politicization in 1848/49. However, she made the experience that her demand for civic equality and better social status in the bourgeoisie often met with rejection. Rather, the politicization of the working class created a feeling of threat and sparked fear of another social revolution. Questions and assignments 1. Describe the causes and processes of the revolutions of 1848/49. 2. Summarize the revolution in the Habsburg monarchy. In addition, research in which of the named countries the revolution of 1848/49 still has a high status in the consciousness of the state. W After 1848, many people emigrated to America. They were deeply disappointed in the failure of the revolution. Some left their homes to avoid persecution. The picture shows the middle deck of an emigrant ship around 1850. W Lajos Kossuth, the leader of the Hungarian independence movement, sought a complete separation of Hungary from the Habsburg Empire. This contemporary lithograph shows him in memory of the Hungarian fallen in the Battle of Kapolna against the Austrians (February 1849). 215 Liberalism and Nationalism 6 For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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