Who called biology

History of Biology (2)
  • The middle age
    In the Middle Ages the natural sciences and with them biology and medicine had a difficult time. (Beda, Avicenna, Albertus Magnus.)
  • History of Biology (3)
  • The renaissance
    The first tentative attempts to found a new and scientific biology after the anti-science Middle Ages. (Alpini, Leonardo da Vinci, Paracelsus.)
  • History of Biology (4)
  • Modern biology as science begins with that Breakthrough in modern anatomy. The scholars no longer obtain information from the books of the Greeks and Romans, but for the first time conduct studies on animal and human bodies.
  • History of Biology (5)
  • The modern physiology as science begins with Discovery of the blood circulation by William Harvey. This theory was also the beginning of a confrontation between two schools of thought in biology - the vitalists and the mechanists.
  • History of Biology (6)
  • The microscope Already in the 17th century led to the discovery of red blood cells (Swammerdam), capillary vessels (Malpighi), Graaf's follicles (de Graaf), sperm cells (van Leeuwenhoek), protozoa (van Leeuwenhoek) and plant cells (Hooke).
  • History of Biology (7)
  • The spontaneous generation (spontaneous emergence of life from lifeless matter) was hotly debated in the 18th century. The two warring camps were the vitalists and mechanists. The former believed in a special life force, the latter believed that studying the inanimate world can also provide information about life.
  • History of Biology (8)
  • The introduction of animal and plant species became a necessity in the 18th century as more and more species were discovered and classified. The Swedish biologist Carl von Linné the breakthrough came with the method of binary nomenclature.
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  • The theory of descent still led a miserable existence in the 18th century, but Carl von Linné already had a certain idea of ​​the origin of species, and Jean Baptiste de Lamarck already developed the first closed theory of evolution. It was later found to be wrong, but the door had been pushed open.
  • History of Biology (10)
  • The modern geology awoke in the 18th century. People like James Hutton, William Smith, Georges Cuvier and Charles Lyell recognized that the earth had evolved over long periods of time and that in earlier eras there were animals and plants that are no longer found today. The theory of fossils - paleobiology - was born.
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  • The findings of the embryologists and cytologists finally paved the way for the long overdue theory of evolution. Purkinje, Schleiden, Schwann, Baer, ​​Remak, Kölliker and others (19th century) recognized that relationships between living beings can also be established through embryological and cytological comparisons.
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  • Charles Darwin wrote in the mid-19th century the book "On the Origin of Species through Natural Selection". It is one of the most important books in the entire history of science. Alfred Russell Wallace simultaneously developed a theory similar to Darwin's.
  • History of Biology (13)
  • The teaching on the descent of man was received with great unease, as Darwin no longer accepted the special biological position of humans in the world. Virchow, Dubois and others took part in the debate. Some biologists have interpreted Darwin's teaching in a wrong and fatal way.
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  • Darwin's theories led to heated debates in which Darwin did not participate. Thomas Henry Huxley ("Darwin's Bulldog") and other biologists defended the new theories in public against a front of rejection.
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  • The Austrian monk Gregor Johann Mendel establishes modern genetics and (unintentionally) closes the gap in Darwin's theory. Gregor Mendel could no longer live to see the triumph of his "Mendelian Laws of Inheritance".
  • History of Biology (16)
  • The Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries discovered the mutable hereditary traits and called them "mutations".
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  • The German biologist Walter Flemming discovered small structures that could be colored in the cells and called them "chromosomes" (= colored bodies). Flemming called the cell division, in which the chromosomes appear as thread-like structures, "mitosis" (derived from the Greek word for thread).
  • History of Biology (18)
  • The French Jean Baptiste Boussingault and the German Justus von Liebig founded agrochemistry in the middle of the 19th century. The importance of nitrogen was recognized for the first time.
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  • The Germans Karl von Voit, Max von Pettenkofer, Max Rubner proved towards the end of the 19th century by measuring the energy content of food that the principle of the conservation of energy applies equally to animate and inanimate nature.
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  • Justus von Liebig and Louis Pasteur made fermentation experiments and investigations into the question of spontaneous generation. The discovery that yeast were living cells seemed to corroborate the hypothesis that life is a completely separate phenomenon from dead matter.
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  • The chemists Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhoff, Humphry Davy and Eduard Buchner et al. demonstrated that catalysts control biochemical reactions in living cells.
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  • The English doctor Edward Jenner discovered vaccination at the end of the 18th century after immunizing people against the far more dangerous smallpox by infecting them with cowpox.
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  • Biologists and medical professionals such as Pasteur, Semmelweiß, Lister, Mechnikow, Koch, Cohn, etc. made what is probably the most important discovery for medicine: diseases can be transmitted by microscopic living things.
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  • Biologists and physicians such as Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolph Leuckart, Ronald Ross, Walter Reed, William Crawford Gorgas identified insects as disease carriers. Diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, etc. could be contained in this way.
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  • Biologists like James Lind and Frederick Hopkins recognized that our food must contain certain substances in order to be complete. Some diseases can be traced back to malnutrition.
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  • Frederick Hopkins, Casimir Funk and Joseph Goldberger recognized for the first time that some diseases are caused by a lack of certain substances. This led to the theory of vitamins and the mastery of dangerous deficiency diseases.
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  • Albrecht von Haller, Franz Joseph Gall, Paul Broca, Gustav Theodor Fritsch, Eduard Hitzig, Wilhelm von Waldeyer, Camillo Golgi and Santiago Roman y Cajal were the pioneers in the study of the nerves and the brain. They paved the way for neurology.
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  • Charles Scott Sherrington, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, John Broaders Watson, Burrhus Frederic Skinner interpreted the results of awakening neurology. This led to a new science - psychology. One particular direction - behaviorism - turned out to be a mistake.
  • History of Biology (29)
  • Luigi Galvani, Emil Du Bois-Reymond, Willem Einthoven, Hans Berger, Otto Loewi, Henry Hallet Dale investigated the conduction of stimuli in the nerves for the first time. Understanding the conduction of stimuli in the nerves is a prerequisite for treating nervous and mental diseases.
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  • Ernst Henry Starling, William Maddock Bayliss, Edward Calvin Kendall, Joseph von Mering, Oskar Minkowski, Frederick Grant Banting, Charles Herbert Best, Adolf Friedrich Johannes Butenandt, Tadeus Reichstein and Phillip Showalter Hench discovered that there are special messenger substances in the blood that cause reactions at certain points. Ernst Henry Starling suggested the name "hormones".
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  • Emil Adolf von Behring, Paul Ehrlich, Jules Baptiste Vincent Bordet and August von Wassermann recognized the importance of blood serum. Their investigations led to first insights into pathogens, the immune system and the possibilities of vaccination.
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  • Karl Landsteiner discovered the blood groups and paved the way for blood transfusion to be safe. When it was recognized that blood groups are inherited and are independent of the environment, attempts were made to use this for population-biological studies.
  • History of Biology (33)
  • Twentieth-century serum science saved its most outstanding successes for the fight against a type of microorganism unknown to Pasteur and Koch. Dimitri Iosifovich Ivanovski, Martinus Willem Beijerinck, Friedrich August Johannes Löffler, Frederick William Twort, bacteriologist Felix Hubert d'Herell, Francis Peyton Rous, John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins researched viruses and their diseases for the first time.
  • History of Biology (34)
  • Sidney Ringer, Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Sir Peter Brian Medawar recognized the complexity of the human immune system for the first time.