What are the unwritten rules of cricket
The history of football
The 20th century was the century of football. No other sport has become as popular, big and influential as the "English game". The origins of football in England can be traced back to at least the 10th century. The first written references date from the 14th century, when the game was banned by royal decree - unsuccessful. Further bans or calls to do so, such as in 1572 by the Bishop of Rochester, also failed. However, folk football or village football had little in common with today's football. It was a folk game in the truest sense of the word, in which whole towns took part. There was no clear distinction between players and spectators. The rules were based on simple, unwritten rules of habit. The playing field was just as little fixed as the duration and the number of players. There was no systematic division of labor and teams in the modern sense did not exist.
A catalyst for the spread of the game was the derby character of many encounters, which resulted from the limited travel opportunities at that time. The term "Derby" comes from the infamous Shrove Tuesday battle between the parishes of All Saints and St. Peter's in Derby. At that time, between 500 and 1000 players on both sides were involved in the traditional game. The game lasted around six hours. The river Derwent also belonged to the playing field. Folk football was an extremely rough, brutal affair that repeatedly resulted in serious injuries and occasionally even fatalities. Strength and violence, not dexterity, were emphasized.
That only changed with the advance of the industrial revolution. The "lower classes" were pressed into a draconian factory system and urbanization was promoted - Schulze-Marmeling rightly insists on the social environment of football, but despite all the justified criticism of the conditions in the factories, for most people this meant the possibility of modest social advancement . The industrial age started earlier in England than on the continent. In 1718 England's first large factory, a silk spinning mill, was built in Derby.
By 1850, popular football had largely disappeared. Only the public schools looked after it in an organized manner. It also existed as a spontaneous game in the workers' settlements and on the horse paddocks of the inns. The game changed in the exclusive public schools. Football has been subjected to a process of regulation and civilization. A fixed and formal organization as well as a diverse and written set of rules was created. The - contrary to their name - private educational institutions, run by independent foundations, were founded in the late Middle Ages and early modern times: Winchester 1382, Eton 1440, Rugby 1567, Harrow 1571. The last three in particular were to play an important role in the development of modern football play.
The formal organization, regulation and civilization of the game took place between 1830 and 1860. At Eton and Harrow the proportion of aristocratic students was around 20%. Rugby, on the other hand, was the domain of the offspring of the modern bourgeoisie who were trained in industry, trade, administration and justice. The middle-class students were more dependent on a good education, which predestined rugby for a reform example. Ball games such as football, but also cricket, were first promoted with the aim of encouraging older students to be more responsible, making them an extension of the school administration. By means of carefully organized games that followed clear rules and demanded a high degree of discipline, the students should be taught virtues such as courage, selflessness, teamwork and toughness. The headmaster Dr. Arnold, the father of the poet and chief school inspector Matthew Arnold, had initiated the school reforms. His ideal conveyed in rugby was that of the "Christian-minded gentleman", who was characterized by cultural education, discipline, morally correct behavior and a high level of social responsibility.
In rugby, the sport was no longer only viewed from the perspective of social control and discipline, but also as a means of character formation - with Arnold the idea of primarily forming the character and not the intellect was rooted, e.g. in Greco-Roman antiquity. Cadres for the empire had to be trained. Less highly educated people with the ability of scientific analysis were needed than those who had learned to subordinate themselves or to take on leadership tasks. To keep a stiff upper lipTo accept defeat and critical situations with poise was also part of it. What the army did in Prussia, the public school had to do in England, which had no comparable military tradition.
The reforms affected the ball game in 1846. For the first time, a written set of rules was created: The Law of Football as Played in Rugby School. Instead of the brutal game, a "mock battle" emerged, a competition at a higher level of civilization. Technical and playful skills became more important than brute force and strength. In 1849, the Public School in Eton, where the game had been played since 1747, published its own set of rules, which differed from rugbies mainly in that it introduced an absolute ban on handball for the first time. Cambridge had made a similar statement as early as 1846. In addition to the offside rule and the containment of physical contact, handball was one of the most controversial issues at the time. Every school had its own set of rules, but with that handling game and the kicking game The two main currents emerged, which later led to the separation into a soccer and a rugby variant of soccer.
When the first extracurricular and extracurricular football clubs were established in the late 1850s, a number of them adopted the Cambridge rules from 1848. The first club in the world, founded in 1857, Sheffield FC, however, followed the rules of Harrow. The rivalries between the public schools were reflected in the various sets of rules. The rules of Eton, on which modern football is largely based, were a replica of the aristocratic public school against the bourgeois upstart rugby. Cambridge and Harrow sympathized with Eton in this dispute.
In 1863, in a series of six meetings in London, an attempt was made to create a uniform set of rules. The representatives of eleven London clubs founded the Football Association (FA), which was the first football association in the world to be able to do without a country name in its name. The public schools were not involved in the founding of the FA. Only Charterhouse sent an observer. The schools wanted to maintain their independence and their own regulations.
The introduction of a national cup competition according to the knockout system made a decisive contribution to strengthening the authority of the FA and to the national expansion of the Association Game. The FA Cup was first played in the 1871/72 season. As the oldest English competition, the Cup is therefore still more important in England than anywhere else.
Nevertheless, the harder rugby variant still dominated in 1880. The Times wrote at the time that around twice as many players were committed to the rugby union game as to the association game. The majority of the public schools played rugby. The tougher game had 59 rules, while soccer only had 14. Modern soccer was therefore easier to understand for both players and spectators. It was also more attractive because it was more varied, more open and more fluid. Soccer was also more "democratic" because big and strong men did not dominate as in rugby, but very different types of players were used.
The English game par excellence was and is cricket, the modern rules of which were laid down by the Duke of Dorset as early as 1774. In the 19th century, sport meant hunting, shooting, fishing and cricket for the aristocrat, rowing, rugby and cricket for students, and football, darts, greyhound racing and cricket for the workers. The English national game has idioms like it's not cricket (that's not fair). Like no other game, cricket symbolizes the idea of fair play.
Soccer was not only in competition with rugby, but also with cricket. Soccer was therefore a pure winter game in the beginning. Many football clubs were initially cricket clubs. At the end of the 19th century there was a changing of the guard. Football started to take first place thanks to the workforce. It was cheaper and less time consuming than cricket. Workers then made up 80% of the employed population in England. Her main pastime was soccer. The saying that football and not religion is the opium of the people is therefore no coincidence. Incidentally, many football clubs go back to church initiatives, including the Liverpool club Everton FC. In the 1870s, four in Blackburn and eight in Sheffield had links to religious associations. In Birmingham there were 83 out of 344 clubs in 1880 and 25 out of 112 clubs in Liverpool in 1885. Manchester United, on the other hand, emerged from a railway sports club. Many workers' associations would hardly have achieved longevity and fame without the help of local industrialists and business people. Poor clubs without their own playing field were therefore Wanderers called. This origin still lives on in the names of clubs like that today Bolton Wanderers further.
Football wasn't limited to England. He quickly began his triumphal march around the world. In 1867 the first club, Queen's Park, was founded in Glasgow, which incidentally only conceded its first goal eight years later! The first international football match between England and Scotland took place as early as 1870. The first continental country to turn to football was Switzerland. In the French-speaking part of Geneva and Lausanne in particular, the game was introduced in the 1860s by English students studying at private Swiss schools. The technical schools were attended by future engineers, business people and bankers. The Lausanne Football & Cricket Club was founded in 1860. FC St. Gallen was founded in 1879 by English students. The club should play a leading role in administrative matters. In 1898 the Zurich Grasshopper Club, founded in 1886, the name comes from an English biology student, the first Swiss national champion. However, the role of the Alpine republic was more important for the export of football around the world. One of the most successful teams in the early days of French football was called Marseille Stade Helvétique. The team consisted entirely of Swiss. In 1908, at the Milan Cricket and Football Club in Milan, there was a dispute between locals and foreigners, including some Swiss. The Swiss Enrico Hintermann became the driving force behind a spin-off that was called FC Internazionale for short - Inter for short. Probably the most famous club in the world, FC Barcelona, was founded in 1899 by the Swiss Hans Gamper, who came from the Zurich club Excelsior. Between 1901 and 1903 he scored 103 goals for Barça. By 1930 he was elected President of the Catalan Club five times by the members of the club. Gamper had learned the game at the Technical Institute in Winterthur.
Overall, of course, the English led the way in the expansion of football - mainly by sea. They brought the game to Denmark, for example. A Dutchman who had studied in England, Pim Mulier, brought it to Holland in 1879. The first Italian club, the Internazionale Football Club Torino, was founded in 1891 by the Italian businessman Eduardo Bosio, who commuted back and forth between Turin and London. Together with Italian students, some British people living in Turin founded the Juventus club in 1897. In December 1899, the Milan Cricket and Football Club was formed. The names of the clubs already mentioned clearly indicate the English influence. In France, the first club was founded in the port city of Le Havre in 1872. It was founded by English employees of the textile and arms factories. With regard to the thesis that where the British exercised their rule - in Australia, South Africa, England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales - rugby prevailed, whereas where the British only pursued their work, soccer was practiced, France is an exception. For a long time the country could not choose between rugby and football. Often, as in Le Havre, the pioneers practiced a hybrid. Rugby remained more popular in France until the turn of the century. In Spain, soccer was imported into the Basque northern provinces around 1890 by English miners employed there - the name of the oldest club, Athletic Club of Bilbao, founded in 1898 by students who had got to know the game in England, indicates the British influence.
Incidentally, Jewish football fans played an important pioneering role at many clubs. Walther Bensemann was involved in the founding of the clubs in Frankfurt and Karlsruhe and called the trade journal Kicker into life. Some clubs had a "Jewish-cosmopolitan" image, including FC Bayern Munich. Often it was more noble and bourgeois-liberal-oriented circles. In Vienna, Hakoah Vienna was an exclusively Jewish team that became national champions in 1925. The local rival FC Austria was the club of the assimilated Jewish bourgeoisie in the capital. In Amsterdam, Jewish businessmen founded the Ajax club. The Jewish influence has been preserved there to this day. In Budapest, the MTK club had the label of being a Jewish club - at times a third of the Hungarian national team was Jewish. In France, the Jewish manager Bernard Lévy founded the Racing Club de Paris. The end of the Jewish football culture in Europe came with the Nazis.
In Argentina, football was the seafarer's favorite pastime in Buenos Aires, which became the first sporting capital on the continent. Around 40,000 British lived here around 1890. They formed the largest and most prosperous British colony outside the Empire. Argentina was Britain's most important trading partner. In addition to soccer, technicians and employees also brought golf, polo, rowing, tennis and rugby to Buenos Aires. In 1867 the English brothers Thomas and William Hogg founded Buenos Aires FC, the first club in South America, together with William Herald. His cradle was in the previously founded Buenos Aires Cricket Club. The decisive factor in Argentina was the influence of the Scotsman Alexander Watson Hutton, who founded an English high school in Buenos Aires in 1884. Exercise was an important part of the lesson plan. On Hutton's initiative, the Federation of the Land was established in 1893, which in 1903, after changing its name, became a member of the English FA.
Little Uruguay is one of the most remarkable footballing nations. Here, too, soccer was first the game of the elite and an expression of the British presence. Young British employees first started cricket and rowing clubs in Montevideo. In 1891, English high school teacher William Poole founded the Albion Cricket Club, which also had a football section. A few months later, young British engineers created the Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club, which became the famous Peñarol Club in 1913. Uruguay won the Olympic Football Tournaments of 1924 and 1928 and the first FIFA World Cup in 1930. In 1950 they were again world champions when they surprisingly beat hosts Brazil in the final.
In Brazil, Charles Miller, who was born in Sao Paulo in 1875 and whose parents came from England, is considered the country's football pioneer. Miller played for Southampton in England, before he returned to Brazil in 1894 with two footballs and a soccer dress in his luggage. In 1895 he played what appeared to be the first "real" football game there. The English faced each other. As early as 1888, the British had founded the Sao Paulo Athletic Club, which primarily played cricket. The club now expanded its activities to include football. The first club for Brazilians was founded at Mackenzie College, founded by Methodist missionaries from the United States.
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