THRESHOLDS WITH RAISED RAIL FASTENING AS
The invention relates to a track section for rail vehicles with sleepers arranged one behind the other and rails supported on the sleepers, the sleepers each having support areas for the rails arranged at a distance from one another.
The invention further relates to a track with such a track section and sleepers for such a track section.
The sleepers of a track are used to keep the rails at a defined distance from one another. For this purpose, the rails are fastened to the sleepers in the support areas of the sleepers, with fastening either by means of direct screwing, in which the sleeper screws screwed into the sleepers hold down the rail foot, for example by means of resilient tensioning means, or by means of base plates that are attached to the sleeper with sleeper screws and have clamping devices (e.g. Pandrol clips) to hold down the rail foot. The sleepers can be made of wood, steel or concrete or composite materials. The sleepers lie in a track bed, which usually consists of gravel. The sleepers or other rail fastening supports can, however, also be integrated in a superstructure plate made of concrete or asphalt. The present invention can basically be used regardless of the type of rail fastening, regardless of the material of the sleepers and regardless of the design of the track bed.
Driving on a track can be made difficult or even prevented by various environmental influences. In areas with drifting sand, for example, there are major operational and safety problems for track systems, especially in the area of switches, due to the overlaying of the tracks with sand and the penetration of sand into the switch system, so that regular inspection of the track and, if necessary, cleaning before the Driving is required. Sand drifts have so far been removed either manually or with the help of clearing vehicles such as excavators, which naturally means a lot of effort. The cleaning of switch systems can often only be done manually.
From WO 2012/135913 AI a design of a rail system for use in desert areas has become known in which. the sleepers and rails are stored on a separate, open and permeable support structure. This measure is structurally very complex and can also only be used for the new manufacture of rail and switch systems. The present invention is therefore aimed at creating a track that is as inexpensive as possible, with which obstructions to rail traffic due to sand drifts can be avoided as far as possible and which can be used both in the manufacture of new tracks and in retrofitting.
To achieve this object, the invention essentially provides for a track section of the type mentioned at the outset that the sleepers in the support areas and possibly in the area between the support areas are raised. The fact that the rails rest on elevated sleepers creates a free space for the drift sand between the lower edge of the rails and the track bed and in the longitudinal direction of the rails in the sleeper area between the support areas, which leads to a marked improvement in the permeability of drift sand. The drifting sand approaching the track laterally is divided into a plurality of flow channels, each of which runs between two adjacent sleepers, whereby this flow division leads to a reduction in the flow cross-section and, in terms of flow technology, to an increase in the flow velocity in the area of the flow channels, which supports the transport of the sand underneath the rails to the other side of the track, so that there is no sand deposits in the track area. This nozzle effect can be further improved if, as corresponds to a preferred development, the raised contact areas of the threshold are rounded at their ends when viewed from above.
The elevation is preferably made such that a free space remains between a lower edge of the rails and the track bed, the free space preferably extending over a vertical height of at least 8 cm, in particular at least 12 cm.
The threshold elevation can in principle either only be provided in the support areas or also in the area in between. In the first case, the design is preferably made such that the thresholds in the support areas are raised in relation to the area between the support areas. In the latter case, the threshold has a continuous elevation that extends without interruption over all support areas. For a particularly effective avoidance of drifting sand drifts, care should be taken to ensure that there is sufficient free space between the lower edge of the rails and the track bed, whereby in this context it is preferably provided that the elevation is at least 6 cm, preferably at least 9 cm, particularly preferably at least 12 cm amounts to.
Accumulations of drifting sand can preferably be avoided on the lateral end faces of the sleepers and in particular the raised support areas in that the sleeper elevation (s) is (are) designed to ascend or descend like a ramp at its ends.
The raised area (s) can either be formed in one piece with the rest of the body of the sleepers, which is particularly advantageous when a new track is being rebuilt. Alternatively, an existing one can be retrofitted■ Tracks are preferably provided that the sleeper comprises a base body designed with a substantially uniform height and at least one elevation element which forms the elevation and is fastened to the base body. The retrofitting takes place here in such a way that the rails are detached from the conventionally designed sleepers, that the at least one elevation element is then arranged in the respective area of the sleeper and connected to the base body of the sleeper, and that the rails are finally attached to the at least one elevation element become. The at least one elevation element can be designed, for example, as a metal body, with the laterally rounded regions of the at least one elevation element being able to be formed by separate caps. The rails can be fastened in a conventional manner using support plates, the design in this context preferably being such that a support plate serving as a rail support is fastened in each of the raised support areas of the sleepers. The support plate can have holding and / or tensioning members for rail fastening means.
The support plate can be fastened to the sleeper by means of sleeper screws, as in the case of conventional sleeper designs, the sleeper screws having to be designed to be extended by an amount corresponding to the increase in the sleepers. In this context, a preferred embodiment provides that the base plate are fastened by means of sleeper screws which penetrate the bores of the at least one elevation element and are screwed into the base body. In such an embodiment, however, the lengthened sleeper screws result in increased bending loads on the sleeper screws. In an advantageous embodiment of the present invention, the sleeper screws are therefore countersunk in the at least one elevation element and the corresponding openings are closed flush with cover caps.
In the case of a one-piece design of the sleepers, sleeper screws of conventional length can be used, with corresponding stability of the sleepers also being ensured in the area of the raised support areas by the reinforcement of the sleepers also being designed to extend into these increased support areas.
For a direct fastening of the rail on the sleeper without base plates, dowels or shoulder elements can be cast into the raised support areas or shoulder elements or ribs can be welded on.
In a particularly advantageous embodiment of the present invention, the track section provided with the elevations according to the invention is designed as a switch or crossing. This takes account of the fact that drifting sand drifts are particularly common in the area of switches or crossings, and cleaning of the switch systems is particularly difficult. If the elevations according to the invention are only provided in the area of the switch or the intersection and the subsequent transition track sections do not have such elevations, suitable measures must be taken to achieve the necessary level adjustment. This is preferably ensured by the fact that the track in the transition track sections is designed to ascend or descend like a ramp. When choosing the length of the transition track section, care must be taken to ensure a sufficiently large radius transition in the hollow and in the dump.
Alternatively, the level compensation takes place in such a way that the track bed in the track section designed as a switch or crossing is lower than the track bed of the transition track sections. The extent of the removal of the track bed essentially corresponds to the extent of the increase in the raised support areas of the sleepers.
In the area of a switch or an intersection, the rails are lowered¬ Fastening to the sleepers is usually done using base plates, with the base plate having either a sliding chair or a wing rail or wheel guide attachment, depending on its position. In the intermediate rail area, which lies between the tongue device and the frog, the rail can also be fastened directly to the sleepers without base plates. The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to exemplary embodiments shown schematically in the drawing. 1 shows a detail of a sleeper with a raised rail support area in cross section, FIG. 2 shows a plan view of the embodiment according to FIG. 1, FIG. 3 shows a view according to FIG. 1 in a modified embodiment, FIG Track in the area of a switch, FIG. 5 a top view of the configuration according to FIG. 4, FIG. 6 the floor plan of a track with a switch, FIG. 7 a representation of the height profile of the track according to FIG. 6 in a first configuration, FIG. 8 shows a representation of the height profile of the track according to FIG. 6 in a second embodiment, FIG. 9 shows a section along line AA in FIG. 6, FIG. 10 shows a section along line CC in FIG. 6, and FIG. 11 shows a section according to 6 in a first embodiment, and FIG. 12 shows a section along line AA in FIG. 6, FIG. 13 shows a section along line CC in FIG. 6 and FIG. 14 shows a section along line BB in FIG Fig. 6 in a second embodiment, 15 shows a side view according to arrow XV in FIG. 9 and FIG. 16 shows a side view according to arrow XVI in FIG. 12.
A conventional sleeper is shown in detail in FIG. 1 and denoted by 1. The threshold is designed, for example, as a concrete threshold and has a flat surface 2 in a conventional manner. In the area of the support of a rail 3, an elevation element 4 is attached to the base body 1 of the sleeper and rests on the planar surface 2 of the base body 1 with an intermediate plastic layer 5. The elevation element 4 has a substantially cuboid shape and has a width that is slightly less than the width of the base body 1 of the sleeper. The cuboid elevation element 4 is provided at its two ends with cap elements 6, which rise in the shape of a ramp and are rounded, as can be seen in the plan view according to FIG. 2, and in particular merge with a tangential transition into the side surface of the elevation element. A base plate 7 is arranged on the elevation element 4, on which the rail foot of the rail 3 rests between two rib-like elevations 8. A plastic intermediate layer 9 can in turn be arranged between the support plate 7 and the rail foot of the rail 3. The support plate 7 is fastened to the heightening element 4 and to the base body 1 of the sleeper by means of sleeper screws 10 which penetrate a hole in the heightening element 4 in a threadless area and are screwed into a corresponding internal thread of the base body 1. As can be seen in the plan view according to FIG. 2, a total of four sleeper screws are provided per support plate.The rail foot of the rail 3 is held down by clamping elements not shown in detail.
The elevation element with the rounded cap parts can for example be made of steel or of a steel fiber or plastic reinforced concrete.
The provision of the elevation element 4 means that the rail 3 is positioned significantly higher than the conventional arrangement in which the rail is arranged on the surface 2 of the base body 1 of the sleeper, so that a clearer area is visible in the free area between two successive sleepers There is free space between the lower edge of the rail 3 and the track bed. This free space forms a flow cross-section for sand carried by the wind, so that the sand is blown under the rails without drifting sand drifting in the area of the track.
In the modified embodiment according to FIG. 3, in which the rail is not shown for the sake of clarity, the elevation element 4 has indentations 11 so that the sleeper screws 10 can be arranged in a correspondingly sunk position. In this way, the sleeper screws 10 can be made much shorter than in the embodiment according to FIG. 1. As a result, the screw load can be significantly reduced. The fastening of the support plate 7 on the elevation element 4 takes place in the embodiment shown in FIG. 3 without screws, for example by means of welding.
4 shows the inventive design of the threshold in the area of a switch so that, unlike in FIG. 3, the base plate 7 now carries a sliding chair 12 on which a tongue rail (not shown) in relation to the stock rail 3 between a position or a storage position can be moved. The support plate 7 is fastened to the elevation element 4 by means of separate screws 13 which, as shown in the top view according to FIG. 5, are arranged further out than the sleeper screws 10.
6 shows a track 14 which has a switch 15 in a central section. In the area of the switch 15, the thresholds, not shown in FIG. 6 for the sake of clarity, have elevations, whereas the track sections leading to and away from the switch have no such elevations. It is therefore necessary to ensure a corresponding level compensation, for which two alternative versions are available. According to a first embodiment, it is provided in FIG. 7 that the track in transition track sections 16 adjoining the switch 15 is designed to ascend or descend in the manner of a ramp, the ramp preferably being realized in that the sleepers increase or decrease Have height trained elevation elements. In the embodiment according to FIG. 7, the track bed runs over the entire track at the same level.
In FIG. 8, however, the leveling is ensured by the fact that the track bed in the area of the switch 15 is lower than the track bed of the transition track sections 16, the level of the lowered track bed being indicated schematically at 17.
FIGS. 9 to 11 now show sectional views in the area of the switch 15, an embodiment of the invention being shown as a retrofit kit. In the corresponding sectional views according to FIGS. 12 to 14, on the other hand, an embodiment is shown that can be used when the track is rebuilt. The same reference numerals are used in FIGS. 9 to 14 as in FIGS. 1 to 5. FIG. 9 shows a sectional view in the area of the tongue rails 18 of the switch 15, the tongue rails 18 being able to be displaced on the slide chair 12 in the direction of the double arrow 19. The elevated arrangement of the rails is achieved in turn by arranging elevation elements 4 on a sleeper designed as a conventional base body 1. It is therefore assumed that a track with conventional sleepers 1 is found which is redesigned by retrofitting the elevation elements 4 in such a way that the rails 3 and 18 can assume a correspondingly elevated position. The elevation elements 4 are only provided in the schematically illustrated support areas 20, whereas no such elevation element is provided in an area 21 lying between them.
The same applies to the intermediate rail area shown in FIG. 10, in which a total of four support areas 20 are provided for rails 3. In the heart area shown in FIG. 11, a total of three elevation elements 4 are provided, with the support plates 7 carrying wheel links 22 in the two outer support areas and a frog 23 in the middle support area. The track bed 25 also extends with its level surface to the side of the end faces of the sleepers, as is shown by way of example in FIG. 11.
The design according to FIGS. 12 to 14 essentially corresponds to the design according to FIGS. 9 to 11 with the difference that, instead of conventional sleepers with separate heightening elements 4, sleepers are used which already have raised areas 24 molded in one piece by the manufacturer. In this case, the support plates 7 can be fastened by means of sleeper screws which have a conventional length, the internal thread of the sleepers 1 cooperating with the sleeper screws being formed in the area of the elevations 24. In the representations according to FIGS. 15 and 16, the free space formed between the track bed 25 and the lower edge of the rail 3 due to the sleeper elevation y can be seen. The increased vertical distance caused by the increase y is denoted by x.
EP14714570.0A2013-04-102014-03-06 Sleepers with raised rail fastening as protection against silting ActiveEP2984230B1 (de)