Are F1 cars gasoline or diesel
Formula 1 rules 2020: Technical Formula 1 regulations
Table of Contents:
Original version in English
Maximum and minimum weights
Wheels / tires
Original version in English:
According to the rules, the drive train consists of six different systems: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor-generator unit for kinetic energy (MGU-K), motor-generator unit for heat energy (MGU-H), energy storage (ES), turbocharger and Control electronics.
The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is the petrol-powered heart of the drive train. Since 2014, the engine has adopted the following format: 1.6 liter displacement with six cylinders and turbocharger as well as direct petrol injection with a maximum pressure of 500 bar. The speed is limited to 15,000 rpm. The connected turbocharger functions as a system for energy recovery.
With ERS, energy can be tapped in a maximum of seven possible ways and fed through the MGU to the rear axle. This unit is now referred to as MGU-K. The MGU-H, an electric motor connected to the turbocharger, picks up the remaining energy.
The MGU-K converts some of the kinetic energy that would otherwise remain unused on the rear axle during braking into electrical energy and feeds it to the energy store. When the car accelerates again, the energy collected in the energy storage device is passed on to the MGU-K unit. It can absorb two megajoules per lap and emit four megajoules in order to drive the rear axle with an additional output of 120 kW (approx. 161 hp) for over 30 seconds per lap.
The MGU-H is an electric motor that is directly coupled to the turbocharger. Energy from the exhaust gas flow that is not used to drive the compressor can be tapped from the turbine, collected by the MGU-H unit, converted into electrical energy and fed to the energy store. While the MGU-K can tap a maximum of 2 MJ of energy per lap, there is no limit for the MGU-H. This tapped energy can be used to drive the MGU-K unit when accelerating. It can also be used to power the MGU-H unit to accelerate the turbocharger.
The ES stores the energy that was tapped from the two MGUs so that it can later be given back to the same systems. The maximum and minimum weight of these systems is 25 kilograms and 20 kilograms, respectively.
Formula 1 engines have an "anti-stall program" to prevent the engine from stalling when it spins. It must be programmed in such a way that the engine is switched off after ten seconds at the latest if the driver has not switched back to driving mode during this time.
Electronic driving aids are not permitted. This is guaranteed by standard electronics provided by McLaren Electronic Systems (MES) and Microsoft.
The Formula 1 cars have to run on the super plus petrol familiar from the petrol station. Further additions are only permitted to a very limited extent. The FIA limits the amount of gasoline to 110 kilograms and the maximum flow rate to 100 kilograms per hour. A maximum of five different gasoline mixtures may be used per season, two per Grand Prix. However, identical fuel must be used in qualifying and the race.
A maximum of two driven wheels are permitted. Reverse gear is mandatory. Eight gears are also specified in the regulations. Eight different gear ratios must be sufficient for the entire year. The racing teams only have one option to change their selection during the season.
Maximum and minimum weights
Including the driver and clothing, but excluding gasoline, a vehicle must weigh at least 743 kilograms at all times when it is on the route. The weight cannot be distributed arbitrarily between the front and rear axles, but must be at least 338 or 397.5 kilos on both axles. The drive train alone must weigh at least 145 kilograms, the driver including protective equipment and seat 80 kilograms.
Wheels / tires
Formula 1 tires are 305 millimeters wide at the front and 405 at the rear. The maximum wheel diameter is set at 660 millimeters for dry tires and 670 millimeters for rain tires. These are 13-inch wheels.
Since 2009, dry tires (slicks) no longer have to have a profile or grooves.
Each wheel carrier is secured with two cables. The fastening must withstand forces of ten tons per cable and 20 tons per wheel.
The front and rear suspension must not interact with each other or be electronically adjustable. The FRIC (Front-and-Rear-Interconnected) suspension system, in which the four individual wheel suspensions are connected via hydraulic lines and thus regulate the vehicle height, is prohibited, as is active wheel suspension.
For safety reasons, the cockpit must be dimensioned so that the driver can leave it within five seconds. The maximum time allowed to leave the cockpit and put on the steering wheel is ten seconds. The thickness of the head and neck protection must be 75 millimeters. The length of the cockpit is 850 millimeters. The front footwell must be padded. The minimum thickness is 25 millimeters.
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