Will any other race evolve after humans?

Sin and vice

Humans have been dissatisfied with themselves since time immemorial. This resulted in the longing for a new, better person. Mostly it was connected with the utopia of a different, better society. Sometimes the new person should stand at the beginning, sometimes the new society.

Man's dissatisfaction with himself is due to the fact that he never had it easy on this earth. Adverse living conditions, illnesses, other people who wanted bad things for him: even very survival was difficult for him. Man knew about his mortality. He rightly felt himself weak and imperfect. Also in moral terms. Because he could hardly keep the self-imposed rules for an orderly and peaceful coexistence with other people.

And so in the ancient cultures the feeling of weakness and powerlessness was combined with the awareness of one's own moral imperfection. Something like a guilty conscience arose. The myths of ancient cultures already told of a flood. It came upon people as God's punishment. The Old Testament also tells of God's wrath and that he tried a new beginning with new, better people:

"The Lord saw that man's wickedness increased on earth and that all his thoughts and aspirations were only ever evil. The Lord regretted having made man on earth, and it hurt his heart Lord said, "I will destroy from the earth the man I have created, and with him cattle, reptiles, and birds of the sky, for I regret having made them. Only Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord." . Noah was a righteous, blameless man. He went his way with God. "

God gave Noah time to build a great ark. For himself and his family, from which a new, better human race should emerge. And although God was also dissatisfied with the animals, one pair of each was allowed to save himself on the ark. Today we know that the Flood was not a success story. Noah's descendants were no better than those people who had to lose their lives back then - in the great wave of renewal.

Better man, better world?

The idea that a new beginning with a new person is necessary because the old person simply cannot go any further, this idea is as old as it is illusory. And - as the Flood has already demonstrated - very dangerous: for everyone who stands in the way of the new person. This is shown by all attempts of mankind to do the same as God and to force a new beginning.

The French Revolution gave us civil liberties. But although a terrible bloodbath was wrought in Paris and nobles and opponents of the revolution were beheaded by the thousands with the guillotine, this reign of terror merely created a new political order. But the new person, the citizen, is still no better than any of his predecessors.

Socialism and communism should allow humanity to advance even further in their development. In the eyes of Marx and Engels, the citizen was only a selfish individualist. The dictatorship of the proletariat was supposed to create a person under communism who is no longer alienated from himself, but can finally be himself, freed from the tutelage of religion. Friedrich Engels explained:

"We want to get everything that announces itself supernatural and superhuman out of the way, and thereby remove untruthfulness, because wanting to be supernatural is the root of all untruths and lies."

Engels and Marx wanted to leave the superhuman of religion behind. And yet it sounds like a religious promise when Engels speaks of the human species being on the way to a "free, independent creation of a new world based on purely human, moral living conditions".

For Marx and Engels, religion was "the opium of the people". And yet they did not shy away from intoxicating their followers with great melodious words. Also by subliminally granting man the rank of god. A God who can freely create a new world - a good, moral one. Marx and Engels were prophets. They promised salvation - in a new, better world with real people. Engels announced communism as if it were paradise on earth: "It is the leap of humanity from the realm of necessity into the realm of freedom."

Language can be tell-tale. Whether in religion or in politics. When there is talk of truth and falsehood, it becomes dangerous for those who are supposed to be on the side of the lie. Then, as Engels announced, "get rid of them and thereby remove the untruthfulness." All of this happened in a terrible way and millions of times, where the communist empire of freedom and real people was wanted to be established: especially in Russia, China and Cambodia.

Deification of man

The idea of ​​the new man and a new beginning in human history is, as the myth of the Flood shows, ancient. In the West it was Christianity that kept revitalizing the vision of a new person. And thereby also influenced the thinking of worldly spiritual currents. We encounter the call for the new man in Paul in the New Testament. He appealed to the church in Ephesus:

"Put away the old man. Change your previous life and renew your spirit and mind! Put on the new man, who is made in the image of God in true righteousness and holiness."

An idea that is generally attributed to Nietzsche, the idea of ​​the superman, can already be found in the Old and New Testaments. In both, man is the image of God. And thus far more than just a person. Just as Christ was the Son of Man and the Son of God. Paul wrote to the church in Corinth:

"From now on we no longer judge anyone by human standards. If someone is in Christ, then he is a new creation: the old has passed, the new has come."

Indeed, Jesus also wanted to radically change someone, a new person. In the Sermon on the Mount he proclaimed the commandment to love one's enemy and said:

"You have heard that it was said: You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy. But I say to you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you so that you may become sons of your Father in heaven. If only you love those who love you, what reward can you expect for it? Do not the Gentiles also? You shall be perfect as your heavenly Father is. "

The new man, Jesus apparently believed possible, can become as perfect as God. To strive for divine perfection seems to us to be an absolute overburden today. To this day it is impossible for us to love our enemies. Very few manage to love one's neighbor as much as oneself.

In the third century, the Roman Church officially distanced itself from a divine image of man. But until then and beyond that, there were many Christian communities and spiritual currents who considered the new, divine man to be a possible and soon to be expected reality - with the announced return of Christ and the establishment of a kingdom of God on earth. The theologians of that time repeatedly referred to the sixth verse of Psalm 82 in the Old Testament. There God says: "You are gods and especially sons of the Most High."

Today it seems obvious that God did not speak to humans here, but to other gods. To pagan gods, for he foretells them that they will die like humans and perish like tyrants. But in the Gospel of John Jesus is quoted as referring to this very word from the Old Testament. When Jesus, because of his statement "I and the Father are one", is accused of equating himself with God and wants to stone him, he defends himself: "Isn't it written in your law, 'I said you are gods'? " Jesus actually seemed to trust people to have superhuman abilities. In his farewell speech before his arrest, he promises the disciples and all who believe in him: "Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes in me will also do the works that I do and will do greater things than this."

The deification of man, the idea of ​​his omnipotence, is not only found in Christianity, not only in religions. The clever thinkers of the Enlightenment, who wanted to free people from religious tutelage, also anti-religious movements like Marxism and also an opponent of Christianity like Nietzsche, attributed human abilities that are equal to a divine creative power. A new, better person and a new, heavenly kingdom on earth, both created by man himself, they should become reality.