Who is the most melancholy living person

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[452] The Germans are nothing yet, but she become something; so they don't have a culture yet - so they can't have a culture yet! - They are still nothing: that is, they are all sorts. you become something: that is, they once cease to be all kinds of things. The latter is basically just a wish, hardly a hope; Fortunately, a wish one can live on, a matter of will, of work, of discipline, of cultivation as well as a matter of indignation, desire, privation, discomfort, yes, bitterness - in short, we Germans want something from us that was not yet wanted from us - we want something more!

That this "German as he is not yet" - has something better to offer than today's German "education"; that all "becoming" must be angry when they perceive a satisfaction in this area, a brazen "sitting down" or "smoking themselves": that is my second sentence, about which I also haven't yet have relearned.


Spiritual enlightenment is an infallible means to make people insecure, weaker-willed, in need of coherence and support, in short that Herd animal to develop in people: why so far all great government artists (Confucius in China, the Roman empire, Napoleon, the papacy, at the time when it had turned to power and not only to the world), where the ruling instincts hitherto culminated, spiritual enlightenment also availed themselves - at least they did rule let (like the popes of the Renaissance). The crowd's delusion on this point, e.g. B. in all democracy, is extremely valuable: the downsizing and governability of the people is sought as "progress"!


The gloom, the pessimistic tinge, necessarily came in the wake of the Enlightenment. Around 1770 one noticed the decrease in cheerfulness; Women, with that feminine instinct that always sided with virtue, thought that immorality was to blame. Galiani hit the mark: he quotes Voltaire's verse:

Un monstre gai vaut mieux

Qu'un sentimental ennuyeux.

If I now suppose that I am now a few centuries ahead of Voltaire and even Galiani - who was something much deeper - in the Enlightenment: how far must I have come in the gloom! This is also true: and with a kind of regret I took care early on of the German and Christian narrowness and consequential inaccuracy of Schopenhauer's or even Leopardian pessimism and sought out the most fundamental forms (- Asia -). To but this To endure extreme pessimism (as it sounds here and there from my "birth of tragedy"), to live "without God and morals" alone, I had to invent a counterpart. Perhaps I know best why man laughs alone: ​​he alone suffers so deeply that he invents laughter had to. The most unhappy and melancholy animal is, how cheap, the most cheerful.


At the guide of the body. - Assume that the »soul«Was an attractive and mysterious thought from which philosophers have rightly reluctantly parted - perhaps what they are now learning to exchange for it is even more attractive, even more mysterious. The human Body, in which the whole of the most distant and immediate past of all organic becoming comes alive again, through which an immense, inaudible current seems to flow, over and above it: the body is a more astonishing thought than the old "soul". At all times it is better for the body than for our most real possession, our most certain being, in short ours ego been believed as in the spirit (or the "soul" or the subject, as the school language now says instead of soul). It never occurred to anyone to understand his stomach as an alien, perhaps a divine stomach: but his thoughts as "inspired", [453] his valuations as "blown in by a god", to grasp his instincts as activity in the twilight - There are testimonies from all ages of mankind to this inclination and taste of man. Even now, especially among artists, a kind of amazement and respectful display of the decision is to be found in abundance when the question arises as to how they succeeded in the best throw and from which world the creative idea came to them: they have, if they ask in this way , something like innocence and childlike shame in it, they hardly dare to say: "That came from me, that was my hand that threw the dice." Conversely, even those philosophers and religious who have the most compelling reason in their logic and Piety had been able to take their corporeal deception (and indeed as a deception that has been overcome and dismissed), could not avoid recognizing the stupid fact that the body has not gone away: about which the strangest testimonies are partly in Paul, partly in the Vedânta philosophy are found. But what does last mean Strength of faith? So it could still be a very stupid belief! - Here is something to think about: -

And finally, if the belief in the body is only the result of one conclusion: assuming that it is a wrong conclusion, as the idealists claim, is it not a question mark about the credibility of the spirit itself that it is the cause of wrong conclusions in this way? Assuming that multiplicity, and space and time and movement (and whatever the presuppositions of a belief in corporeality may be) would be errors - what suspicion would this arouse against the spirit that has led us to such presuppositions? Suffice it, belief in the body is for the time being still a stronger belief than belief in the spirit; and whoever wants to undermine it, is also most thoroughly undermining the belief in the authority of the spirit!


Of the World interpretations, which have been tried so far, nowadays seems to be the mechanistic to be victorious in the foreground. Obviously she has a good conscience on her side; and no science believes in progress and success in itself unless it has been achieved by mechanistic procedures. Everyone knows these procedures: you leave "reason" and "purposes" out of the game as best you can, you show that, with the right amount of time, anything can come about, you don't hide a gleeful smile when once again the "apparent intentionality in the fate" of a plant or an egg yolk is attributed to pressure and thrust: in short, one honors wholeheartedly, if a joking expression is permitted in such a serious matter, the principle of the greatest possible stupidity. In the meantime, especially among the selected spirits who are in this movement, there is a premonition to recognize a fear, as if the theory has a hole, which sooner or later could become its last hole: I mean that, on Whistle when you are in dire straits. You cannot "explain" pressure and impact yourself, you become them actio in distans not going: - one has lost faith in being able to explain oneself and admitted with a sour face that it is possible to describe and not explain, that the dynamic world interpretation, with its denial of "empty space," the lump-atoms , will shortly have power over physicists: although there is still an inner quality to dynamis -


The winning term »force"With which our physicists created God and the world, needs an addition: it must be assigned an inner will, which I call"Will to power«, D. H. as an insatiable desire to show power; or use, exercise of power, as a creative impulse, etc. Physicists cannot get rid of the "remote effect" from their principles; nor is it a repulsive (or attractive) force. It doesn't help: all movements, all "appearances", all "laws" must be viewed only as Symptoms one internal Grasp what is happening and use the human analogy to this end. In the animal it is possible to derive all of its instincts from the will to power; likewise all functions of organic life from this one Source.


I believe in absolute space as a substrate of power: it limits and shapes it. The time is eternal. But in and of itself there is neither space nor time. "Changes" are only appearances (or sensory processes for us); no matter how regular we recur between these, it does not matter justified than the very fact that it has always happened that way. The feeling that that post hoc a propter hoc is easy to deduce as a misunderstanding; it is understandable. But appearances cannot be "causes"!


"Subject", "object", "predicate" - these are separations made and are now superimposed on all apparent facts like schemes. The basic false observation is that I believe I I am the one who does something, who suffers something, who "has" something, who "has" a quality.


That »Inheritance«When something completely unexplained cannot be used to explain, but only to denote, fix a problem. That is exactly what appliesAdaptability«. In fact, assuming the morphological representation is complete, there is nothing explained, but a tremendous fact described. How an organ can be used for any purpose the is not explained. It would be with the assumption of causae finales as little as with causae efficientes explained in these things. The term "causa«Is just a means of expression, no more; a means of designation.


There are analogies, e.g. B. to our memory another memory, which is noticeable in heredity and development and forms. To our To invent and experimentation, inventing the use of tools for new purposes, etc.

What we our »Awareness«, Call, is innocent of all essential processes of our maintenance and growth; and no head would be so fine that it could construct more than a machine - which every organic process is far beyond.


It is unlikely that our "knowing" should go further than just enough to sustain life. Morphology [456] shows us how the senses and nerves, as well as the brain, develop in relation to the difficulty of nutrition.


I beware of chemical "Laws«To speak: that has a moral aftertaste. Rather, it is an absolute determination of power relations: the stronger becomes master of the weaker, insofar as this cannot enforce its degree of independence - here there is no mercy, no sparing, even less respect for "laws"!


Even in the realm of the inorganic, only its neighborhood comes into consideration for a force atom: the forces in the distance are balanced. This is the core of the Perspective and why a living being is thoroughly "selfish".


The weaker presses for the stronger out of food shortages; it wants to hide, possibly with him one become. Conversely, the stronger rejects himself, he does not want to perish in this way; rather, as it grows, it splits into two and more. The greater the urge to unity, the more one may conclude that there is weakness; the more the urge for variety, difference, inner decay, the more power there is.

The urge to approach one another - and the urge to push something back - are the bond in the inorganic as well as the organic world. The whole divorce is a prejudice.

The will to power in every combination of strength, defending oneself against the stronger, rushing towards the weaker is more correct. NB. The processes as "Essence«.


The continual transitions do not make it possible to speak of "individual" and so on; the "number" of beings is itself in a state of flux. We would know nothing about time and nothing about movement if we did not, roughly, believe that we were seeing "things at rest" next to moving things. Just as little of cause and effect, and without the erroneous conception of "empty space" we would not have come to the conception of space at all. The principle of identity has as its background [457] the "appearance" that there are the same things. A world in development could not be "grasped" or "recognized" in the strict sense; only insofar as the "understanding" and "knowing" intellect finds a coarse world that has already been created, made up of sheer appearances, but has become solid insofar as this kind of appearance has sustained life - only insofar there is something like "knowledge": d. H. a measurement of earlier and more recent errors against each other.


The connection between the inorganic and the organic must lie in the repulsive force which every force atom exerts. "Life" should be defined as a permanent form of Processes the Force determinations, where the different fighters in turn grow unevenly. To what extent there is a reluctance to obey; self-power is by no means given up. Likewise, in ordering there is an admission that the absolute power of the opponent has not been conquered, not incorporated, dissolved. "Obeying" and "commanding" are forms of fighting game.


- The new philosophers, however, begin with the presentation of the actual hierarchy and value difference of people - they want, alas, just the opposite of a similarity, an adjustment, they teach alienation in every sense, they tear up gaps such as have never existed before has, they want man to become more evil than he ever was. For the time being they still live strangers and hidden from one another. For many reasons it will be necessary for them to be hermits and to make masks themselves - consequently they will be ill-suited for searching for their own kind. You will live alone and probably know the tortures of all seven solitudes. But if they run into each other, by chance, you have to bet that they will misunderstand each other or cheat on one another.


If the world had a goal, it would have to be achieved. If there were an unintended final state for them, it would also have to be reached. If it were capable of persevering and becoming rigid, of "being" at all, it would only have in all its becoming one At the moment this ability of "being", then all becoming would have long since come to an end, thus also all thinking, with all "spirit". The fact of the "mind" as a becoming proves that the world has no goal, no end state and is incapable of being. - But the old habit of thinking of goals in everything that happens and of a guiding, creative God in the world is so powerful that the thinker has trouble not to think of the world's goallessness as an intention again. On this idea - that the world is intentionally aiming evade and even know how to artificially prevent getting into a cycle - all those who have the power of the world must fall for it eternal novelty want to decree, i.e. a finite, definite, unchangeably equal force, like "the world", the miracle ability to infinite Redesign of their shapes and positions. The world, even if no longer a god, is supposed to be capable of divine creative power, the infinite power of transformation; she is supposed to do it arbitrarily deny to revert to one of its old forms; you should not only have the intention but also the medium have to yourself before each repetition preserve; it should therefore at every moment each of its movements towards the avoidance of goals, final states, repetitions check - and what the consequences of such an unforgivably crazy way of thinking and desiring may be. It's still the old religious way of thinking and wishing, a kind of longing to believe that somewhere but the world is equal to the old, beloved, infinite, unlimited creative God - that somewhere "the old God is still alive" - ​​that longing of Spinoza, which is expressed in the words "deus sive natura«(He even felt»natura sive deus«-) expresses. But what is the sentence and belief with which the decisive turn that has now reached? Obesity of the scientific mind most definitely formulated about the religious, god-making mind? Doesn't it mean: the world, as a force, must not be thought of as unlimited, because it can not to be thought of as such - we forbid ourselves the concept of a infinite force as incompatible with the term "force". So - the world also lacks the capacity for eternal novelty.


Basically, morality is against science hostile minded: Socrates was already this - because science takes things as important which have nothing to do with "good" and "bad", consequently the feeling for "good" and "bad" Take weight. Morality wants the whole human being and all of his strength to be at its service: it considers it a waste of someone to waste not rich enough is when man seriously cares about plants and stars. That is why in Greece, when Socrates introduced the disease of moralizing into science, science went rapidly downhill; a height like that in the minds of Democritus, Hippocrates and Thucydides has not been reached for the second time.


My sympathy«. - This is a feeling for which no name is enough for me: I feel it where I see a waste of valuable skills, e.g. B. at the sight of Luther: what strength and what absurd backwoods problems! (At a time when in France the brave and cheerful skepticism of a Montaigne was already possible!) Or when, through the influence of nonsense of chance, I see someone falling short of what could have become of him. Or even with a thought of the lot of mankind, as when I, with fear and contempt, watch the European politics of today, which under all circumstances also affect the fabric all People future is working. Yes, what could become of "man" if - -! This is my kind of "pity"; whether there is already no sufferer With that I suffered there.


Germany, which is rich in skilled and well-informed scholars, has been lacking great souls and powerful spirits to such an extent for a long time that it seems to have forgotten what one size Soul what a more powerful Spirit is: and nowadays, almost with a clear conscience and embarrassment, mediocre and, moreover, badly-turned people come to the market and praise themselves as great men, reformers; such as B. Eugen Dühring does, truly a skilful and well-informed scholar, [460] who, however, reveals with almost every word that he has a petty soul and is crushed by narrow envious feelings; also that it is not driven by a powerful, exuberant, charitable, wasteful spirit - but by ambition! But to be stingy for honors in this age is even more unworthy of a philosopher than in any previous age: now when the mob rules, when the mob pays homage!


The jungle vegetation "man" always appears where the struggle for power has been fought for the longest. The huge People.


egoism and his problem! The Christian gloom in Larochefoucauld, which pulled him out everywhere and with it the value of things and virtues reduced believed! To counter this, I first tried to prove that there was nothing else could as egoism, - that the people with whom that ego becomes weak and thin, also the power of the great love becomes weak - that the most loved ones are above all out of the strength of theirs ego are, - that love is an expression of egoism etc. The false appreciation aims in truth at the interest 1. of those who are used, helped, the flock; 2. it contains a pessimistic suspicion about the reason for life; 3. it would like to deny the most splendid and well-behaved people; Fear; 4. It wants to help those who are subject to justice against the victors; 5. It brings with it a universal dishonesty, and especially with the most valuable people.


It is a comfort to me to know that above the steam and filth of the human lowlands there is one higher, brighter humanity there, which in number will be a very small one (- because everything that stands out is by its nature rare): one belongs to it, not because one would be more talented or more virtuous or more heroic or more loving than the people down there, but - because one colder, brighter, more farsighted, more lonely is, because one endures loneliness, prefers, demands as happiness, privilege, yes condition of existence, because one lives under clouds and lightning as under one's own kind, but also under sunbeams, dewdrops, snowflakes and everything that is necessary from the Height comes and, when it moves, it only moves in that direction forever top down emotional. The aspirations to of height are not ours. - The heroes, martyrs, geniuses and enthusiasts are not quiet, patient, fine, cold, slow enough for us.


Until now there was no German culture. There is no objection to this sentence that there were great hermits in Germany (- Goethe, for example): because they had their own culture. But just around them, as it were around mighty, defiant, lonely rocks, always lay the rest of the German being, as their opposite, namely, like a soft, boggy, insecure ground on which every step and step abroad made an "impression" and created "forms": German education was a thing without character, an almost unlimited indulgence.


"Thinking" is in the primitive state (pre-organic) Shape-enforce like with crystals. - In our Thinking is that Essential the classification of the new material in the old scheme (= Procrustes bed), the same-do of the new.


It is not enough that you see the ignorance in which humans and animals live: you also have to Will have to be ignorant and learn. It is necessary for you to understand that without this kind of ignorance life itself would be impossible, that it is a condition under which the living alone sustains itself and thrives: a big, solid bell of ignorance must stand around you.


The highest and most exalted human joys, in which existence celebrates its own transfiguration, come, how cheap, only the very rarest and best advised: and even these only after they and their ancestors have spent a long life preparing for this goal, and not even having lived in the knowledge of this goal. Then an overflowing wealth of the most diverse forces and at the same time the most agile power of "free will" and sovereign disposition reside in one People loving one another; the spirit [462] is then just as at home and at home in the senses as the senses are at home and at home in the spirit; and everything that only takes place in this must trigger a subtle, extraordinary happiness and game in those too. And vice versa too! - Consider this reversal on occasion of Hafez; even Goethe, how much in the weakened picture, gives an inkling of this process. It is probable that in the case of such perfect and well-off people the most sensual activities will ultimately be transfigured by a parable intoxication of the highest spirituality; they feel a kind in themselves Deification of the body and are furthest away from the ascetic philosophy of the sentence "God is a spirit": whereby it turns out clearly that the ascetic is the "failed man" who is only something in himself, and precisely the judging and condemning something, Well means - and means "God". From that height of joy where man feels himself and himself completely as a deified form and self-justification of nature, down to the joy of healthy farmers and healthy half-human animals: this whole long, tremendous light and color guide of the Lucky called the Greek, not without the grateful shudders of those who are privy to a secret, not without much caution and pious silence - with the name of the gods: Dionysus. - What knowledge for all newer people, the children of a fragile, multiple, sick, strange time, of that Scope of Greek luck, what could they know about it! Where did the slaves of "modern ideas" get their right to Dionysian celebrations?

When the Greek body and soul "blossomed", and not in states of pathological exuberance and madness, that mysterious symbol of the highest world-affirmation and glorification of existence ever achieved on earth emerged. Here is a scale in which everything that has grown since then is found to be too short, too poor, too narrow - just pronounce the word "Dionysus" before the best newer names and things, before Goethe or before Beethoven or before Shakespeare or before Raffael: and suddenly we feel our best things and moments directed. Dionysus is a Judge! - Did you understand me? - There is no doubt that the Greeks learned the ultimate secrets "of the fate of the soul" [463] and everything they knew about education and purification, above all about the immovable hierarchy and inequality of values ​​between man and man tried to interpret their Dionysian experiences: here for everything Greek is the great depth, the great silence - the Greeks are not known as long as the hidden underground access is buried here. Pushy scholarly eyes will never see anything in these things, no matter how much learning still has to be used in the service of that excavation -; even the noble zeal of such friends of antiquity, like Goethe and Winckelmann, has something inadmissible here, almost immodest. Wait and prepare; wait for new sources to pop up; prepare in solitude for strange visions and voices; wash his soul more and more pure from the dust and noise of the fair at this time; everything Christian through something super-Christian overcome and not just dismiss yourself - for the Christian doctrine was the counter-doctrine to the Dionysian -; the south rediscover yourself and stretch a bright, shining, mysterious southern sky over you; to regain the southern health and hidden power of the soul; Step by step, become more extensive, more supranational, more European, more supra-European, more oriental, finally Greek - for the Greek was the first great connection and synthesis of everything oriental and with it that Beginning of the European soul, the discovery our »new world«-: whoever lives under such imperatives, who knows what the may one day encounter? Maybe just - a new day!


German philosophy as a whole - Leibniz, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, to name the great ones - is the most thorough romance and homesickness that has existed so far: the longing for the best that ever was. You are no longer at home anywhere, in the end you want to go back to where you can somehow be at home, because you want to be at home there alone: ​​and that's that greek World! But that is where all the bridges have broken off - except the rainbow of terms! And they lead everywhere, to all homes and "fatherlands" that existed for Greek souls! Of course: one has to be very light, very thin, to step over these bridges! But what happiness already lies in this will to spirituality, almost to spirituality! How distant one is from "pressure and shock", from the mechanical foolishness of the natural sciences, from the noise of "modern ideas" at the fair! You want back, through the church fathers to the Greeks, from north to south, from formulas to forms; one still enjoys the end of antiquity, Christianity, like access to it, like a good piece of the old world itself, like a glittering mosaic of ancient concepts and ancient value judgments. Arabesques, flourishes, rococo of scholastic abstractions - still better, namely finer and thinner than the peasant and mob reality of the European north, still a protest of higher spirituality against the peasants' war and mob uprising that over the intellectual taste in the north Europe has become master and who in the great "unspiritual man", Luther, had its leader: - In this regard, German philosophy is a piece of counter-reformation, even a renaissance, at least a will for a renaissance, will continue in the discovery of antiquity, in the excavation of ancient philosophy, especially the pre-Socratics - the best buried of all Greek temples! Perhaps that a few centuries later one will judge that all German philosophizing has its real dignity in the fact that it is a gradual reclamation of ancient soil, and that any claim to "originality" sounds petty and ridiculous in relation to the higher claims of the Germans, the bond that seemed to have been torn again, the bond with the Greeks, the hitherto most highly developed type of "human". Today we are approaching again all those basic forms of world interpretation which the Greek spirit invented in Anaximander, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Democritus and Anaxagoras - we are getting closer from day to day Greek, first, how cheap, in terms and esteem, as it were as gracing ghosts: but one day hopefully also with ours Body! Herein lies (and always has been) my hope for the German being!


There is only birth needle, only blood needle. (I'm not talking about the little word "von" and the Gotha calendar: switching on donkeys.) Wherever "aristocrats of the spirit" are spoken of, there is usually no lack of reasons for hiding something; it is known to be a personal word among ambitious Jews. Spirit alone does not ennoble; rather, something is needed first that ennobles the spirit. - What does it take? Of the blood.

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