What is the name of a diagnostic doctor

Laboratory results: what is it?

The results of the laboratory tests are compiled in the form of laboratory results and differentiated as follows:

Qualitative or categoricalResults
  • positive or negative,
  • Blood group A, B or 0 / Rh positive or negative.
Semi-quantitative results
  • strongly positive, marginally negative etc.
  • RAST classes for allergy examinations,
  • Titre levels in infection serology (antibody tests).
Quantitative results
  • Examination result in the form of numerical values ​​plus unit.
Interpretation of the finding
  • diagnostic interpretation of the results by the laboratory doctor.
Here you can open a laboratory result in PDF format as an example.

You can find detailed information on the individual laboratory values ​​under laboratory values ​​table (grouped according to organs, organ systems or laboratory diagnostic groups).

Medical laboratory diagnostics

In addition to blood, a large number of other test materials are analyzed in the medical laboratory. These include:

  • Urine,
  • Chair as well
  • all other body fluids like
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid),
    • Joint punctures,
    • Smears,
    • Douches,
    • Secretions (such as cough slime or semen)
    • and much more.

Genetic and molecular biological examinations are also an important specialty of medical laboratory diagnostics. In the future, these will become increasingly important, especially with regard to the prevention and targeted therapy of diseases.

What is being tested in the blood?

Blood is a highly complex fluid. It consists of the following components:

During the blood test, depending on the medical question (indication), all of these blood components can be analyzed.

Examination of the blood cells

All blood components can be examined in the medical laboratory. The general and global examination of the cellular components of the blood is called a blood count. The ratio between the red blood cells (erythrocytes) on the one hand and the blood fluid on the other is numerically expressed in an important parameter that is found on practically every laboratory result: the Hematocrit value. This is the percentage of the volume of red blood cells in the total blood volume.

Examination of blood plasma

The blood plasma is a yellowish, usually translucent and protein-rich liquid. In order for the plasma to be examined in the medical laboratory, the blood must be made incoagulable after collection.

To do this, special substances are added to the blood:

In the next step the blood is centrifuged. The blood cells collect in the lower area of ​​the blood collection tube and the supernatant is the plasma.

Examination of serum

So-called serum is also used for certain laboratory tests. To do this, the blood in the collection tube must first clot and the liquid supernatant obtained after centrifugation is the serum. Serum is somewhat poorer in protein than plasma, as some of these are used up for blood clotting.