Who composed Doordarshan's signature melody

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Real time

The concept of real-time comes from computer science and is now used in a transdisciplinary manner and in various research contexts. Real time means the (technically maximally controlled) synchronization ... [read more]

Jazz in film / jazz film

The jazz film is first and foremost a form of short film, which is mostly about the documentation of a single piece. There is also a long series of documentaries about individual musicians, orchestras or con ... [read more]

Levels of film-immanent time

(1) Cross-genre, film can be spoken of as a time medium: its constitutive codes, which converge in the motion picture (and in the sound), are temporally based; they bundle information in time-fixed segments that are specified as film length or duration and their extension in turn in the Rewead]


Diegesis is often shortened as a description of the spatiotemporal relationships of the narrated world, as a description of its model unity, as a spatiotemporal un ...


from Latin: fluere = to flow The term Fluxus was first proposed in 1960 by George Maciunas, with whom he separated himself from the concepts of the happening by referring to the traditions of vaudeville, gags, Dada and Japanese haikus.


In the cultural semiotic sense, genres can be interpreted as sets of cultural conventions. From this point of view, genres represent narrative strategies that have become routine when dealing with “ideological tensions” and conflicts. At the same time, it opens up a broad spectrum of ideological functions that a genre can have. Wa ... [read more]

Movie time

Film time (or cinematic time) is a montage phenomenon that goes hand in hand with the construction of the cinematic space and is central to all cinematic narratives. Through the montage, the film has the possibility of natural time ... [read more]

Zarzuela movie

Related to the opéra comique or the operetta, the Zarzuela is a typically Spanish genre of music theater, probably created in the Baroque era, with alternating spoken and sung text. The music of the modern zarzuelas of the late 19th and 20th centuries consists mainly of original music ... [read more]

Syntagmatic (of the film)

The sequential division of the film into individual scenes, assembly sequences, etc. plays an important role in both the production and reception processes. In film theory, it is mainly from Christan Metz ... [read more]


also: domestication, domestification; English: domestication, occasionally also: domestification (1) Domestication describes the processes that integrate new media into the everyday activities of households: users integrate them into everyday activities, separate media menus are created, the new ... [read more]


In the literature and narrative theory of the 1970s, the concept of intertextuality was introduced, which describes the relationship between texts and texts. As yet relatively little worked on in film studies, it allows the individual film to be both ... [read more]


In contrast to all theories of signs that start from the individual sign user, the individual sign or the individual code, the model of the semiosphere represents the entirety ... [read more]

Sign theory

Sign theory or semiotics is the study of the sign processes. Peirce and Saussure are generally regarded as the towering founding figures of two directions in semiotics, the pragmatic and the structuralist tradition. Here, the Peirce model is characterized by the emphasis on the reference ... [read more]


(1) Anticipation (anticipation, Greek: prolepsis) is a term introduced by Otto Selz in thought psychology, which is intended to explain the goal-oriented thought process: Each thought task then creates a kind of goal, in which the solution is only in the form of a blank Prompt ... [read more]

Time in the movie

(1) A first level of time representation in the film is that of physical time. Here it is processes of time lapse and stretching (mainly based on the manipulation of the running speed), the representation of simultaneity or postponement (as an effect of the montage, often combined with ... [read more]

Time lapse

In many narratives it is necessary to skip time or to gather time. That the cinematic stories consist of a myriad of smaller or larger ... [read more]


In psychological parlance, the term "perception" denotes those psychological events that are caused by stimuli or stimulus constellations and that are mediated by a sensory organ with the corresponding neurophysiological mechanisms.


engl. Suitcase word from the underlying music as well as Kodak (the company had been greatly admired by the word inventor Squier because it had become a global company with the new technologies); in German next to Muzak also: Musak; also more or less derogatory: department store music, elevator music, background music, sprinkling music; Dudelmusik, plätschermusik, pin ... [read more]

Leading medium

(1) At the level of individual media use, one understands that medium as the leading medium, which - regardless of the time of use and the specific forms of care as an everyday accompanying medium, as a medium can be read more]

Mood management theory

German sometimes: arousal management The mood management theory was proposed in 1988 by Dolf Zillmann. She assumes that the reception of media not only conveys information, but also stimulates or modifies feelings. For modeling the pr ... [read more]


Collective term for a number of research approaches from semiotics, linguistics, anthropology, literary theory and psychoanalysis, which trace systems of expression (such as languages, arts, writings, etc.) and works of art (such as films) back to ordering and organizing structures ... [read more]


French: sémiotique, English: semiotics; Often differentiated: a semiology based on Ferdinand de Saussure (French: semiologie, English: semiology) versus a semiotics based on Charles W. PeirceSemiotics is the general theory and science of signs. She examines the ... [read more]

unreliable narrator

also: implausible narrator; English: unreliable narrator A narrative theoretical term from literary studies that denotes the unreliability of the statements of the literary narrator. Read this on]

Gestalt: Gestalt laws

Gestalt laws (or gestalt factors) should explain why gestalts, as elements of the perceptual experience, behave in a stable manner in relation to subjective arbitrariness and mere stimulus configuration. They are considered "principles of interrelationship" ... [read more]

System of symbols: Goodman

With reference to the early semiotic works of Peirce and Morris, Goodman developed a very differentiated, general symbol-theoretical approach that decisively shaped further image theory, which, in addition to the epistemological and metaphysical implications, played an important role above all for modern aesthetics ... [read on ]

Clothes in the movie

Social reality is not homogeneous. It is structured hierarchically. It breaks down into classes, castes or layers. Clothing indicates affiliations - to an age, class or (sub) cultural style. It expresses differentiations ... [read more]

Ideology criticism

from Greek: idea = ideal prototype, also: form, idealized appearance, and from Greek: logos = word. The critique of ideology is a model of social and later also text analysis, the texts on their explicit and above all implicit assumptions about social power relations, Strat ... [read more]

Assembly theory

“Montage” in a theoretical sense describes the achievements that joining images together in the structure of the film as a work, as a means of communication, in reception, etc. The coordination with the narration usually forms the meaningful framework - the assembly is then subordinate to the process of narration (one ... [read more]

Free flow of information

German mostly: Freedom of information, sometimes (and misleadingly): Freedom of the media Although both the technical and the communicative networks of communication came about primarily under the auspices of tangible economic or power-political interests, the definition is

Traveling cinema

The traveling cinema was the dominant form of exploitation of early films in Central Europe until around 1908. Traveling cinemas, like the stationary cinemas that were built from 1905/06 onwards, were specially designed for film projection on a permanent basis.

Reception aesthetics

sometimes also: reception and effect aesthetics; engl .: reader-response criticism, reception theorySince the 1960s there has been a massive turn to a communication model in literary studies (Hans Robert Jauß, Wolfgang Iser, Stanley Fish, etc.), but also in other text sciences.


(1) Assembly is sometimes understood in the artisanal sense as “cut”: It is then about the mechanical assembly and joining of image and sound segments. (2) The mechanical side of the process must be strictly distinguished from the creative act of arranging the parts of the film, the development of the outer & more read more]

pop music

As the best-known German-speaking pop music scholar Peter Wicke states, a clear definition of the term pop music does not seem possible, as the ideas and concepts behind this term are constantly changing. For example, very different conceptions of popular, popular and pop music from different perspectives can be read on]

Community cinema

In the context of the discussions in the cinema reform movement in the years after 1910, the attitude of some reformers to make use of film as a means of instruction increasingly prevailed. In the process, demands were repeatedly made that the performance practices of the cinemas continue reading]


English: recapitulation, rundown, run ‑ through, sum, summary, summation, summing ‑ up, wrap ‑ up The genuinely cinematic methods of mold construction include sequences that combine longer processes with a descriptive sequence of individual images (or images ... [Continue reading]


(1) Male figure from fairy tales and fantasy or fantasy with infantile and occasionally demonic features, mostly appearing in groups. These dwarf figures often work in the mine, where they mine the treasures of the earth. The "bad dwarf" steps read on]

Gonzo movie

(1) The adjective gonzo stands in American English for 'extraordinary, eccentric across borders, crazy, crazy'; as a noun it can also be a person with anarchic or eccentric behavior or essence ... [read more]

Predication: Germany

In German history there were three rating procedures: (1) In the Weimar Republic there were two institutions that dealt with the testing of films: The film testing agency carried out film censorship according to police criteria. This was followed by an examination from an artistic point of view, the ... [read more]

Turner Broadcasting System (TBS)

Ted Turner, the founder and owner of the Turner Broadcasting System, became the largest single shareholder of Time Warner (and z ... [read more]) when his company merged with the Time Warner Group.


In the context of the concept of intertextuality, the term intertext describes the universal category of a comprehensive association of all texts in contrast to the concrete individual appearance that is in the spe