What is extraversion

Extraversion - extraversion

The Pair of oppositesIntroversionExtraversion describes a stable personality trait and was first used in 1921 by the psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung in his Personality Types Theory used. Extroverts are outwardly oriented and get along well in an active social environment and consume little energy, because extroverts recharge their energy in contact with other people and are more likely to lose energy when they are alone. Introverts, on the other hand, are highly focused on their inner workings, which means that in social situations they are more likely to take on the role of passive observer, so that they are viewed as calm and reserved. Extraversion and introversion are not psychological or physical illnesses, but an innate or learned one Behavior patterns or. Personality trait.

In Jung's mind the psychic energy can be directed either outwards (extraverted) or inwards (introverted), therefore perception, intuition, thinking and feeling are either extraverted or introverted. For Jung, extraverted also meant conscious and introverted unconscious.

In psychology, the degree of extraversion is considered to be a fundamental character trait, the principles of which were laid in people in the cradle and which remains relatively stable over the life span. In principle, however, everyone has introverted and extroverted parts, i. In other words, every person has an individual mix on the continuum between the two extremes. Extraverts are more likely to focus their attention on the outside world; that is, they find it invigorating when a lot happens around them.

In personality research, Hans Jürgen Eysenck also started out from genetically determined differences between people and developed a personality model in which the personality of each individual can be described primarily in terms of introversion-extraversion. The criticism Hans Jürgen Eysenck's model is primarily aimed at reducing people to two basic behavioral characteristics. Since Eysenck himself has to be counted among the extroverts, he has emphasized his characteristics (extrovert = open, emotionally intelligent) as rather positive, and since introverts allow themselves more time to think about something sensibly, he has this personality as indecisive, hesitant and also rated as shy or emotionally unstable rather negatively. Introvertedness doesn't necessarily have something to do with shyness, but is an innate biological energy disposition that determines whether someone tends to behave cautiously rather than just rushing off. So there are two innate ways of coping with life that can only be influenced little by the environment and upbringing.

1. Definition
“Describes the nature of a person, which is directed towards the outside world, towards the environment and other people. It characterizes a type of attitude which, according to C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck, tends to make quick but superficial contacts and easily adapts to the given reality ”(Köck & Ott, 1994, p. 206).
2. Definition
Extraversion is an attitude of interest towards positively rated objects. According to C. G. Jung, the extravert directs his mental and spiritual interests towards reality in an open-minded manner. A distinction is made between active-extroverted and passive-extroverted. In the case of a passive-extroverted person, in contrast to an active-extroverted person, the reaction to an object is forced through its emotional attractiveness (cf. Heese & Wegener, 1969, p. 878).
3. Definition
“Attitudes of people according to C. G. Jung. It is characterized by a positive relationship with the object. The extroverted person is more oriented towards external norms and the general zeitgeist. According to Eysenck (1952) the pole “extraversion” of the personality dimension “extraversion vs introversion” is determined by the factors “self-esteem”, “self-assertion”, “social spontaneity, impulsivity” (Brunner & Zeltner, 1980, p. 70).
4. Definition
Extraversion is a personality trait. The characteristics of an extraverted person include openness, sociability, affinity for the environment, dominance, thirst for adventure, impulsiveness (cf. Tewes & Wildgrube, 1992, p. 108).
5. Definition
“Basic attitude in which thinking, feeling and acting are determined by and directed towards the outside world. The extroverted person can easily adapt to the respective situations of his environment and quickly makes contact with other people ”(Grüner, Kahl & Georg, 1974, p. 71).
6. Definition
Under Extraversion we understand characteristics and behaviors such as the fact that extraverted people are open to others, trustful and seek contact. You are impulsive, like to talk, and have lively gestures and body language. In addition, they are often looking for adventure and variety, are more optimistic and less fearful. You live the work in a team.


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Brunner, R. & Zeltner, W. (1980). Lexicon for educational psychology and school education. Munich Basel: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag.
Grüner, G., Kahl, O. & Georg, W. (1974). Small vocational pedagogical lexicon. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann Verlag KG.
Heese, G. & Wegener H. (1969). Encyclopedic Handbook of Special Education and its Frontier Areas. Berlin: Carl Marhold publishing house bookstore.
Koeck, P. & Ott, H. (1994). Dictionary for education and teaching. Donauwörth: Verlag Ludwig Auer.
Tewes, U. & Wildgrube, K. (1992). Psychology Lexicon. Munich Vienna: R. Oldenbourg Verlag.
http://www.lebenshilfe-abc.de/introversion-extraversion.html (11-12-12)
http://www.zirbenampe.at/Die-Zirbe (15-12-12)

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