Why do I have no cavities

Looked at closely:
Voids in the crumb of bread or rolls

Tips and Tricks

In general, bread and biscuits are characterized by optimal crust formation and a well-loosened crumb.

Depending on the type of pastry, this loosening of the crumbs can be different. For example, a slightly more open pore is preferred for ciabatta, and a fine one for toasted bread.

In no case, however, are large cavities desired in the pastry crumb. If this happens, the defect can rarely be recognized by the external nature of the baked goods. Unfortunately, the customer only notices it when the pastry is cut.

Where do such cavities come from and what can I, as a baker, do about it?

We have the pastry error "cavities" in the brochures

  • Perfect bread quality - recognize and avoid bread defects
  • Perfect bread quality - recognize and avoid bread mistakes

described together with the MRI Institute in Detmold and the DLG in Frankfurt.

Voids in the crumb of bread

The most common cause of voids in the crumb are defects in the process. The error can arise both when working by hand and when processing it by machine. The main reason is that too much flour or too much oil is incorporated into the dough.

Air inclusions due to loosely working up can also lead to voids in the bread crumb. A more rigorous work-up is recommended here.

Regardless of the work-up, too much unbound water can lead to cavities in the dough. The reason for this is that the dough is generally too soft or that too much leftover soaked bread has been added.

Cavities in the bread crumb that are atypical for pastry
Root cause:
  • too soft dough
  • too much leftover bread
  • Dough not worked up tightly enough
  • Casting error (too much flour or oil worked into the dough piece)
  • Hold dough tighter
  • Reduce leftover bread
  • Increase the differential pressure during processing
  • Avoid operating errors
    (use less flour or oil)


Voids in the crumb of bread rolls

In the case of cavities in the crumb of biscuits, there are three main causes of error

  • the dough is too tight in terms of its adhesive properties. On the one hand, this can be due to dough properties that are too old, i.e. if the dough has to rest for too long when the dough temperature is too warm. The cause can also lie in the quality of the flour used, i.e. if the adhesive properties of the flour are too tight overall. This error can be more pronounced in early summer when the grain has already matured well. Corrective action is taken in the mill, but should the error become visible, special baking agents or the addition of small amounts of rye flour (up to 5% on flour) can help.
  • Another cause of voids in bread rolls is found in Kaiser and star rolls. If the dough pieces are stamped too early, the bulge pulls upwards during baking and a large cavity is created in the middle of the roll. This can be remedied by an extended intermediate proving time before the stippling or - if the times specified in the systems - a somewhat faster dough development through slightly increased yeast addition and / or dough temperature.
  • Cavities are also sometimes observed when bread rolls are baked in-store. The cause here is usually that the core temperature of the dough pieces is too cold before baking. This can be remedied by adequately tempering the dough in the core before baking.


    Atypical voids in the biscuit crumb
    Root cause:

    • Flours with excessively strong adhesive properties are used
    • too short intermediate proofs
      stomping or cutting
    • Put dough pieces into the oven with a core temperature that is too cold

    • Use flours with less sticky properties or add small amounts of rye flour to the recipe
    • Extend the intermediate proving time before stomping or cutting until the dough is optimally ripe
    • Before pushing, heat the dough in the core sufficiently


Do you have any further questions?
You can download or speak to both brochures on our website
Contact our sales force.
Our master brands - Ulmer Spatz consultants will be happy to advise you.

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