Frustration is a serious mental illness
Psychoses are mental disorders in which those affected often experience a loss of reality, perceive and process it in a changed manner. Psychosis is a broad term that encompasses mood disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and manias and schizophrenia.
Everyone knows that: depression, listlessness, slept badly on top of that, just a bad day. But depression is much more than just being “in a bad mood”: It is a serious mental illness.
Depression can affect anyone, regardless of age, occupation, gender or social class. But recognizing it is often not that easy. It is therefore important to entrust yourself to someone in your field.
Typical signs of depression are:
- Loss of joys and interests
- Inner emptiness
- Experiencing recurring thoughts of death or suicide
- Sleep and concentration disorders
- lack of self-confidence
Bipolar disorder is a condition in which depressive episodes alternate with manic phases. Such mood swings range from severely depressed to severely manic with varying degrees of intensity. During the mania phase, those affected feel an intense feeling of elation and self-confidence, they are bursting with energy and can behave in a distant manner towards others. It is not uncommon for a fall into depression immediately after the soaring, with feelings of sadness and listlessness, constant brooding and pessimistic thoughts about the future. The recurring manic-depressive phases are often very painful for those affected, both for themselves and for those around them.
Schizophrenia can express itself on different levels: Often those affected feel persecuted, threatened, hear voices, think that they can "read" other people's thoughts or believe that they are receiving news from a world that is inaccessible to others. This manifests itself, for example, in visual or acoustic hallucinations and delusions that the patient does not question. On the contrary: for him, what he has experienced is real and coherent.
In addition to changes in perception, symptoms of schizophrenia can include:
- Impaired thinking ability: Thoughts are mixed up, slowed down, incoherent, illogical, thoughts break off, concepts lose their meaning.
- Flattening of emotions: Schizophrenics often appear absent-minded and unemotional, strong mood swings
- Changes in movements: For example, those affected can freeze completely or move only to a limited extent.
A person with a personality disorder exhibits problematic patterns of perception, thinking, feelings, and behavior. The spectrum of characteristics is broad: from extremely irritable, unstable, fanatical and aggressive to fearful, withdrawn, avoidant, compulsive and so on. Personality disorder is a complex and multi-layered clinical picture that encompasses all areas of life of the person affected and has a massive impact on his personality and, last but not least, brings with it personal suffering and social conflicts. Below we introduce some of the most popular forms.
Borderline disorder is predominantly diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Those affected are torn within themselves, with massive fears of being alone, unstable relationships, identity disorders, severe depression and a lack of body awareness and pain. The person concerned often threatens suicide and self-harm. By scratching the skin with sharp objects, consuming drugs or extreme activities, borderline sufferers try to re-establish a kind of balance and contact with themselves. Those affected find it difficult to perceive and respect their own limits and those of their social environment.
Dissocial Personality Disorder
Dissocial people are usually insensitive to emotions such as fear or insecurity. They show a very low tolerance for frustration and are often very irritable. People affected by dissocial personality disorder are already noticed as children or adolescents, for example because they torture animals or bully other children. Antisocial personality disorder is three times more common in men than women.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Dramatizing oneself, showing theatrical behavior and exaggerated emotional expression - these are the characteristics of histrionics. They are extremely emotional, unstable, and attention-seeking, but their feelings are superficial and therefore often seem fake. Often times, histrionics lack a sense of who they really are. Therefore, they need others to confirm their mood and existence, and they also like to resort to more drastic means.
A large number of mental disorders and manifestations are grouped under the definition of neurosis. The behavior of the person concerned as well as his personality are impaired, but move within socially accepted limits. The terms neurosis and psychosis are fluid, whereby neuroses can always flow into a psychosis.
Besides depression, fears or phobias are the most widespread mental disorders. They are characterized by an unspecific fear or fear of a specific object or situation. Fears are considered to be pathological if they occur excessively without an actual danger or threat being present. Such anxiety disorders include anxiety attacks with feelings of oppression and suffocation, sweating, dizziness or racing heart. Reasons for this can be fear of animals such as snakes or spiders or fears of certain situations such as exams or lectures.
Phobias are exaggerated fear reactions in front of certain situations or objects. The person concerned avoids confrontation with the fear trigger, although he is mostly aware that his fear is unfounded. Whether specific phobias, for example of the forces of nature, animals or certain situations, or social phobias, i.e. the fear of attracting negative attention or approaching others - in principle, a phobia can be developed above anything that is actually harmless.
Stress disorder is a mental illness resulting from a traumatic experience, such as rape, natural disasters, torture, sexual abuse or other experiences of violence. A stress disorder can follow immediately after the trauma, with specific reactions such as panic, dizziness or flashbacks. Post-traumatic stress disorder does not cause symptoms until much later and is initially not directly related to the trauma as a trigger. It shows up, for example, in fears, depressive episodes, nightmares, etc.
The term compulsive behavior encompasses a wide range of behaviors. The transition from normal to compulsive behavior is often fluid and therefore difficult to recognize from the outside. In general, the more the compulsive behavior deviates from the usual behavior and the more it hinders and restricts the person concerned in their everyday life, the more likely a disorder or illness is present. The person concerned devotes all his strength and attention to his compulsions, for example compulsory cleaning and washing, compulsory control, compulsory repetition and counting or compulsory collection or order. In this way he avoids dealing with the issues that are problematic for him. Negative feelings such as dejection and depressive moods are also not perceived as strongly.
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