Front-end engineers should be using Webflow

BIT600 SAP WebFlow - Concepts, Inboxes, Reporting and Handling BIT600. Release

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1 BIT600 SAP WebFlow - Concepts, Inboxes, Reporting and Handling BIT600 Release

2 BIT600 SAP WebFlow - Concepts, Inboxes, Reporting and Handling of Delivered Samples Copyright Requirements for Participants Target Group Navigation Navigation: Learning objectives of chapter Navigation: Business scenario Logging on to the system SAP Easy Access - Standard Role-based user menu Elements of the screen Selection of functions Field help: F1, F Menus: System and Help SAP Library User-Specific Personalization Navigation: Summary of the Chapter Navigation: Exercises Navigation: Solutions Course Overview Objectives of the Course Learning Objectives of the Course Table of Contents Overview Diagram Overall Company Scenario Introduction Introduction: Learning Objectives Overview Diagram (3) Objectives of a reorganization of business processes Workflow concept Workflow concept : Which processes are particularly suitable for the use of workflows? Workflow concept: What workflow is not Workflow: Advantages for the end user Workflow: Advantages for company management Workflow: Advantages for the company A business process as a workflow in SAP WebFlow Engine - terminology The five essential questions about every business process In which order? Workflow definition: Workflow Builder WHAT is executed?

3 WITH WHAT something is carried out: Examples of object types and methods WHAT is carried out: Examples of tasks Definition of tasks: Possible agents WHO does something? WHO executes something: workflow steps and responsible processor WHO executes something? Recipient of the work item WHEN will something be carried out?

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Step definition: Responsible processor Responsibility rule for FI scenario Processor determination in the workflow Work item text Tasks: Other texts Workflows: Workflow template Workflows: Workflow definition and workflow steps Workflows: The Workflow Builder Workflows: Start via triggering events Workflows: Definition & Runtime environment New from 6.10: WebFlow Services Workflow architecture: Summary Architecture: Exercises Architecture: Solutions Quiz for organizational diagram Extension of SAP workflows

6 Extension of a SAP workflow: Learning objectives Extension of a SAP workflow: overview diagram (9) Extension of a SAP workflow: Business scenario Use or extend SAP workflow unchanged? Redefine: Work item text Redefine: Other texts Workflow configuration (1): Use workflow configuration (2): Step types Workflow configuration (3): Step characteristics Workflow configuration: What does it look like?

7 Workflow in a nutshell: Review appendix Workflow application in your company Workflow application: Learning objectives Workflow application: Business scenario SAP workflow or your own workflow? When is programming required? Decision for a workflow: example Can a workflow be introduced? Example of business process and workflow: Example of documenting business processes (example) Proposal for process documentation (1) Proposal for process documentation (2) Workflow roles: Overview of the use of workflow roles SAP authorizations Steps of a workflow project (1) Steps of a workflow project ( 2) Steps of a workflow project (3) Steps of a workflow project (4) Steps of a workflow project (5) Success factors (1) Success factors (2) Workflow application: summary glossary Transaction codes and menu paths Which workflow templates are available?

8 BIT600 SAP WebFlow - Concepts, Inboxes, Reporting and Handling of Delivered Samples BIT600 SAP WebFlow - Concepts, Inboxes, Reporting and Handling of Delivered Samples THE BEST-RUN E-BUSINESSES E RUN SAP AG 2003 SAP AG 2002 SAP R / 3 Release / Q2 Material number: (C) SAP AG BIT

9 Copyright Copyright 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. Forwarding and duplication of this publication or parts of it, for whatever purpose and in whatever form, is not permitted without the express written consent of SAP AG. Information contained in this publication is subject to change without notice. SAP AG 2006 The software products offered by SAP AG or its sales companies may also contain software components from other software manufacturers. Microsoft, Windows, Outlook, and PowerPoint are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM, DB2, DB2 Universal Database, OS / 2, Parallel Sysplex, MVS / ESA, AIX, S / 390, AS / 400, OS / 390, OS / 400, iseries, pseries, xseries, zseries, z / os, AFP , Intelligent Miner, WebSphere, Netfinity, Tivoli, and Informix are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation in the United States and / or other countries. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. UNIX, X / Open, OSF / 1, and Motif are registered trademarks of the Open Group. Citrix, ICA, Program Neighborhood, MetaFrame, WinFrame, VideoFrame, and MultiWin are trademarks or registered trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. HTML, XML, XHTML, and W3C are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology . Java is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. JavaScript is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology developed and implemented by Netscape. MaxDB is a trademark of MySQL AB, Sweden. SAP, R / 3, mysap, mysap.com, xapps, xapp and other SAP products and services mentioned in the text as well as the corresponding logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and other countries worldwide. All other product and service names are trademarks of their respective companies. The information in the text is not binding and is for informational purposes only. Products can differ from one country to another. Information contained in this publication is subject to change without notice. This information is provided by SAP AG and its group companies (SAP group) and is for informational purposes only. The SAP Group assumes no liability or guarantee for errors or omissions in this publication. The SAP Group is only responsible for products and services in accordance with the provisions that are expressly regulated in the agreement on the respective products and services. No further liability arises from the information contained in this publication. (C) SAP AG BIT

10 Requirements for participants Required: SAPTEC Basics of the solution mysap Technology SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

11 Target group Participants: Members of the implementation team who are interested in SAP workflows Members of the implementation team who are interested in tools from the WebFlow Engine Duration: 2 days SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

12 Navigation Contents: User guidance Options for help User-specific settings SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

13 Navigation: Learning objectives of the chapter At the end of this chapter you can: Name the window elements Navigate the SAP system Use the basic functions of the help Make personal system settings SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

14 Navigation: Company Scenario The users familiarize themselves with the system interface and store personal default settings. SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

15 Log on to the system User System Help SAP R / 3 New password Client User password 100 If you have logon problems, please contact your user administrator, Tel Language DE You can store your own texts on the initial screen: See SAP note DEV (1) (100) TWDF0670 OVR SAP AG 2002 SAP systems are client systems. The client concept makes it possible to operate several economically independent companies together in one system. The components SAP BW and SAP KW are exceptions here, only one client is in use here. Each user session only has access to the data of the tenant selected when logging in. A client is an organizationally independent unit in the system. Each client has its own data environment and therefore its own master and transaction data, assigned user masters and specific customizing parameters. In order for users to be able to log on to the system, a so-called user master record must be created for them - based on the relevant client. For reasons of access protection, a password is required when logging in. The entry is dark (starred). SAP systems are designed to be multilingual. The logon language valid for the current session is selected via the Language input field. Multiple logons are logged as of SAP R / 3 Release 4.6. This has both security-related and licensing reasons. When the same user logs in for a second and every subsequent time, a message appears which offers the user three options: Ending the existing session (s), logging in Leave existing session (s) in place, logging in again (is logged) Abort new login It is possible to save your own texts on the login screen in different ways. See SAP Note (C) SAP AG BIT

16 SAP Easy Access - Standard Menu Edit Favorites Extras System Help SAP Easy Access Other Menu Create Role Assign User Documentation Favorites SAP Menu Office Info Systems Tools A logo of your choice greets you in the right window area DEV (1) (100) TWDF0670 OVR SAP AG 2002 SAP Easy Access is the standard entry point into the system. You navigate in the system using a clear tree structure. On the right side of the screen you can include an image, e.g. Your company logo. This screen can only be specified system-wide and is set to be client-independent. Provided you have the appropriate authorization, you will find a detailed description of the settings required for this under the menu item Extras -> Information on administration. Please note that the screen is stored in the system and is transported to the front end every time SAP Easy Access is called. This transmission takes place in compressed form, but the entry logo should not be larger than about 20 kb. You can also prevent this screen from being called by either selecting the Low Speed ​​Connection setting in the SAPLogon program (see SAP note), or by switching off the screen call under Extras -> Settings. See also slide Custom Personalization. (C) SAP AG BIT

17 Role-based user menu Edit menu Favorites Extras System Help SAP Easy Access Other menu Create role Assign user Documentation Favorites URL - Service Marketplace from SAP SM50 - Work process overview SM04 - User list Role SAP_BC_BASIS_ADMIN System: ongoing operation System configuration Performance analysis Problem analysis overview RZ20 - CCMS Monitoring Detail Favorites selected by the user shorten navigation times A role-based menu contains the activities that the user is allowed to carry out according to his role in the system DEV (1) (100) TWDF0670 OVR SAP AG 2002 A role describes a meaningfully defined set of activities in the system . These represent the range of functions typically required by the user at his workplace. In order for users of the SAP system to be able to work with user-specific or workstation-related menus, roles must be set up with the profile generator. The authorizations for the activities provided in the menus are also assigned to the users via roles. Predefined user roles from all application areas are included in the standard. If a user has been assigned a role, he can choose between his user menu and the standard "SAP menu". You can find roles that are delivered by SAP as standard, for example: Via the button Other menu on the SAP Easy Access initial screen. In addition to his role, every end user can personalize his entry into the system using favorites. You can create your own favorites list of the transactions, reports, files and web addresses you use most frequently. You can either create favorites using the Favorites menu item or simply insert them into the favorites directory with the mouse using drag & drop. (C) SAP AG BIT

18 Elements of the screen User Edit Goto System Help Maintain your own user settings Command field Menu bar System toolbar Title bar Application toolbar User ESCH last change MENZEL: 46: 37 Status saved Address Fixed values ​​Parameters tab Start menu Logon language Spool control Output device immediately Delete after output Personal time zone CET CATT Check indicator Decimal display, 89 1,234,, 89 Date format DD.MM.YYYY MM / DD / YYYY MM-DD-YYYY YYYY.MM.DD YYYY / MM / DD YYYY-MM-DD Input fields Checkboxes Radio buttons Status bar SAP AG 2002 DEV (1) (100) TWDF0670 OVR command field: In the command field (which is hidden by default) you can select applications directly by entering the transaction code. You can find the transaction code of an application either in the SAP Easy Access menu tree (see page "User-Specific Personalization") or in the respective application under System Status. System toolbar: The pushbuttons in the system toolbar are available on every SAP screen. The pushbuttons that cannot be used are grayed out depending on the application. If you leave the cursor on a pushbutton for a moment, a small flag appears with the name or the meaning of the respective pushbutton. Here you can also see the corresponding function key assignment. The application toolbar shows pushbuttons that can be used in your current application. Check boxes: Within a group, you can use several options for check boxes at the same time. Radio buttons: You have the option of one selection option. A register makes several information screens clearer. Status bar: Shows information about the current system status, e.g. Warnings and errors. Further elements are: Menu bar: The menus displayed here depend on the application in which you are currently working. In these menus you are offered submenu items. Title bar: The title bar names the function that is available to you here. (C) SAP AG BIT

19 Selecting Functions ... Menu Edit Favorites Additions SAP Easy Access Command Field Other Menu Favorites URL - Service Marketplace of SAP SM50 - Work Process Overview SM04 - User List Role SAP_BC_BASIS_ADMIN System: Ongoing Operation System Configuration Performance Analysis Problem Analysis Overview Detail RZ20 - CCMS Monitoring SAP Easy Access and Favorites List System Create Mode Delete Mode User Defaults Services Utilities List Services for the Object Object History Own Spool Requests Own Jobs Short Messages Status ... Log Off Menu SAP AG 2002 You can call up system functions in the following ways: Using the mouse, by selecting - Menu item - Favorites - Entry of SAP Easy Access via the keyboard (ALT + the underlined letter of the desired menu entry) by entering a so-called transaction code in the command field: A transaction code (T code) is assigned to every function (not every screen!) In SAP systems. You can call up the assigned transaction code from any screen in the system. For example, you can enter "/ n" and the corresponding transaction code to display the customer master data: "/ nsu3". For current processing, you can find out the current transaction code using the Status entry in the System menu. Further input options: - "/ n" terminates the current transaction. - "/ i" deletes the current mode. - "/ osm04" opens a new session and branches to the specified transaction (SM04). The command field can also be accessed via the keyboard. You can use the combination CTRL + TAB for this, so that the cursor jumps from one (input) field group to the next. You can jump within a field group with TAB. By entering "search_sap_menu" in the command field, you can display menu paths to the SAP transactions you are looking for. Searching for text strings is also possible. (C) SAP AG BIT

20 Field help: F1, F4 F1 help Spool control Output device F4 help Address Start menu Fixed values ​​Meaning of fields and technical information Output Performance Assistant immediately Delete after output Personal time zone CET CATT Check indicator Display of input options Language (1) 38 entries found Restrictions logon language spool -Control output device print parameter 2 Specifies whether spool requests are to be printed immediately. Select the field to have spool requests that you generate printed immediately. Do not select this option if you want to keep spool requests in the spool system until they are released for printing. You can release such spool requests later under System -> Services -> Output control. SAP AG 2002 Sprac ... Name AF Afrikaans AR Arabic BG Bulgarian CS Czech DA Danish DE German EL Greek EN English ES Spanish ET Estonian FI Finnish FR French HE Hebrew HR Croatian HU Hungarian ID Indonesian With F1 you get explanations of fields, menus, Functions and messages. The F1 help also takes you to technical information on the respective field. There you will find e.g. B. also the parameter ID, which you can use for your user for value-based pre-assignment of input fields, which also refer to this parameter ID. With F4 you get information about possible input values.Alternatively, you can call up the F4 help for a field by using the button directly to the right of a selected field. If fields are marked with a "check mark" symbol, you can only continue in the respective application after entering a permitted value. Many fields of an application can be marked, hidden or invisibly filled with default values ​​by the user via transaction or screen variants as well as customizing as mandatory (mandatory) or optional (optional). (C) SAP AG BIT

21 Menus: System and Help Menu Edit Favorites Extras SAP Easy Access Favorites SAP Menu Office Info Systems Tools Other Menu System Create Mode Delete Mode User Defaults Services Utilities List Services for the Object Object History Own Spool Requests Own Jobs Short Messages Status ... Log Off Help Application Help SAP- Library Glossary Create Role Release Notes Assign User Documentation SAP Service Marketplace Feedback Settings ... These two menus and their functions are available unchanged on every screen. DEV (1) (100) TWDF0670 OVR SAP AG 2002 Under the menu item System you can find The following points include: Create / delete mode: Create and delete a mode; the system administrator can set the maximum number of modes to a number between 2 and 6 using the rdisp / max_alt_modes parameter. User preferences: Entry of user-specific preferences, e.g. So-called parameter IDs can be used here under Own data in order to preset user-dependent certain fields in the system (e.g. the company code field) with values. List: Important list functions, such as searching for character strings, saving in PC files, printing, etc. Status: Displaying the most important user and system data. Logging off: Ending the SAP session (with a query) The Help menu item includes the following Points: A context-sensitive help for the application. Calling up the SAP library (see next page) a glossary (C) SAP AG BIT

22 SAP Library SAP Library Getting Started Release Notes IMG Glossary Search Help on Help Hide Structure Open All Close All Area SAP Library Back Forward Synchronize SAP Library Introduction to the SAP System SAP Web Application Server SAP Knowledge Management Help on Help Help on the Web Copyright SAP Web Application Server, Release 6.10, June 2001 Copyright 2001 SAP AG. All rights reserved. Local intranet SAP AG 2002 SAP systems offer extensive online help. Help can be called from any image in the system. You can always request help using the Help menu or the corresponding pushbutton (yellow question mark). You can also use very convenient and quick access to the SAP library on the SAP Service Marketplace. There you will find the SAP online documentation (the so-called SAP Help Portal) under Education and Training. There you can not only access the help in HTML format, but also very efficiently start full-text searches in the library. If you have installed the SAP library accordingly, you can of course also have these options within your company. You can also reach the Help Portal directly under (C) SAP AG BIT

23 User-Specific Personalization Edit Menu Favorites SAP Easy Access Favorites SAP Menu Office Settings Information Systems Tools Extras System Help Display Documentation Detailed Technical Information Settings Other Menu Define Start Transaction Shift + F6 Ctrl + Shift + F10 Options ... Shift + F9 New Design ... Create Role Shift + F7 Assign user Documentation Clipboard Generate graphic Create link ... Activate GuiXT Standard size Hardcopy Quick cut-paste Spell check Help for the SAP GUI About ... You can make settings here. Show favorites at the end of the list Don't show any menu, only the favorites don't show a picture Show technical names Various setting options make working with the system easier. Some of them are: Under Extras Settings you can influence the design of your initial screen, e.g. by switching off the image in the right part of the window or by switching on the tech. Names (transaction codes) in the SAP Easy Access menu. Under Adjustment of the local layout you can find e.g. a possibility to activate a quick cut and paste. Under Options ... you will find a way of influencing the reaction speed of the info flag, which is displayed when you "touch" an icon or a push button with the mouse pointer. You can set personal default values ​​under the menu item System User Defaults Own Data. To do this, you can select the Address, Fixed Values ​​and Parameters tabs. The setting of the parameters is explained here as an example: - Parameters: Here you can preset frequently used input fields. The prerequisite for this, however, is that a so-called parameter ID is assigned to the corresponding input field. Procedure to find the parameters: Go to the input field to be assigned. Choose F1, then the "Technical Information" button. An info window is then opened, which shows the corresponding parameter ID under the item "Field data" (if a "Parameter ID" is assigned to the field). (C) SAP AG BIT

24 Navigation: Summary of the Chapter You can now: Name the window elements Navigate the SAP system Use the basic functions of the help Make personal system settings SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

25 Navigation: Exercises Section: Navigation Topic: Basic Functions At the end of these exercises you can: Log on to an SAP system Identify transaction codes Access information in the SAP library Use the F1 help to find field information Use the F4 help, to search for possible field values ​​As a new user of an SAP system, you begin to navigate the system with the help of menu paths and transaction codes and use the various forms of online help. All menu paths mentioned in the exercises refer to the SAP standard menu. 1-1 Log on to the system Select the appropriate system for this training. Use the client, user name, initial password and logon language that the course instructor gives you. When you log in for the first time, a window appears in which you have to enter the new password you have chosen yourself twice. Make a note of Client: _ User: Password: Language :. 1-2 What is the maximum number of modes (windows of the SAP system) that you can open in parallel? Number: 1-3 What are the names of the functions achieved by the following functions in the SAP standard menu and which transaction codes correspond to the menu calls? Tools Administration Monitor System Monitoring User Overview Name of the function: Transaction: (C) SAP AG BIT

26 1-4 Help When you call the application help on the SAP Easy Access initial screen ("Help" menu), to which area of ​​the SAP library are you referenced? Call up maintenance of your own user data either via the system menu or via transaction SU3. Call up the F1 help for various input fields there. Use Technical Information to find the parameter ID for the Logon Language field. Call the F4 help for the Logon Language field. Which language abbreviation stands for Ukrainian? Display the transaction code of the current transaction in the status line. (C) SAP AG BIT

27 Chapter: Navigation Topic: User-specific presettings At the end of these exercises you can: Preset a field with its parameters Make various user presettings Maintain your favorites list Store a start transaction of your choice You begin to save various user-specific presettings. Exercises marked with * are optional. 2-1 User-specific presettings via System -> User settings -> Store your own data. Set your logon language to the value you use in the course. Set the decimal notation you require and the corresponding date format. (C) SAP AG BIT

28 2-2 ​​Maintaining favorites of your choice Create at least one new folder under the favorites folder. Add two of your favorite transactions to this folder. Add the Internet address under the title SAP Homepage. 2-3 * Define a start transaction in the "Extras" menu. Save a transaction of your choice as a start transaction. You must then log out and log in again for the change to take effect. Note: If desired, you can reset the start transaction to the default value by simply deleting your entry. (C) SAP AG BIT

29 Navigation: Solutions Chapter: Navigation Topic: Basic Functions 1-1 Log in to the system that the instructor has given you and change your initial password. 1-2 Opening and closing of modes is done via Create System Mode (or via the corresponding pushbutton) and Delete System Mode. A maximum of six modes can be opened per user session, depending on the system settings. 1-3 You can find the transaction code under System Status. These screens and transaction codes correspond to the menu paths: SM04 for user list 1-4 Help. The chapter Introduction to the SAP System is displayed with information on using SAP Easy Access. The Logon Language field is on the Fixed Values ​​tab. Via the F1 help and then selecting Technical Information, you can see that the parameter ID for this field is the string SPR. Provide according to the task description. The language abbreviation for Ukrainian is UK. Use the pushbutton in the status line to select the display options and choose Transaction. For every transaction you have called up from now on, the associated transaction code is also displayed in the status line of this mode. (C) SAP AG BIT

30 Chapter: Navigation Topic: User-specific default settings 2-1 Storing user-specific default settings To set the logon language, go to User Defaults (System User Defaults Own Data) and then go to the Fixed Values ​​tab. There you enter the language you want under logon language see Maintaining favorites of your choice To place favorites in folders, you should first create folders (subject areas): Insert favorites folder. Choose any name for the folder. You can create as many folders as you want. Folders can also be moved using drag & drop with the mouse. To create favorites, select certain applications (transactions) that you need as favorites in your daily work in the menu tree of the SAP standard menu. You can add entries to your favorites list by selecting the application and selecting Add from the menu. Favorites can also be added to folders at a later date using Move favorites. Moving favorites also works via drag & drop with the mouse. Internet addresses can be created via favorites Insert other objects. 2-3 Define a start transaction Choose Extras Define start transaction Enter a transaction of your choice and continue with Enter. The system message in the status line indicates that this transaction will be the start transaction after your next login. Note: In order to undo this action, you have to follow the menu path given above again and delete the entered transaction code. The next time you log on to the system, you will be taken back to the initial SAP Easy Access screen. (C) SAP AG BIT

31 Course overview Content: Objectives of the course Learning objectives of the course Table of contents Overview diagram Entire company scenario SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

32 Objectives of the course This course SAP AG 2003 Conveys the performance of the WebFlow Engine and a realistic view of the possibilities that the use of workflows opens up. Explains workflow terminology, tools and concepts. Workflows Allows you to find the workflow documentation you need Explains the options for responsibilities and task forwarding Shows you how you can analyze the use of workflows in your company (C) SAP AG BIT

33 Learning objectives of the course At the end of this course, you will be able to describe the advantages of using workflows. Name workflow components, define terms and describe concepts. Set up an organizational structure. Find SAP workflows and their documentation. Adjust and execute SAP workflows. Extend SAP workflows and expand options for call agent determination Execute workflow reports SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

34 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1 Navigation Chapter 2 Course Overview Chapter 3 Introduction Chapter 4 Organizational Structure Chapter 5 SAP Workflows Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Customizing Business Workplace Workflow Architecture Extension of SAP Workflows Chapter 10 Monitoring and Analysis Review Appendix SAP AG 2002 ( C) SAP AG BIT

35 Overview Diagram Navigation Business Workplace 2 Course Overview Workflow Architecture Introduction Extension of SAP Workflows Organizational Structure Monitoring and Analysis SAP Workflows Review Customizing Appendix SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

36 Overall company scenario You would like to use your SAP system to support the business processes in your company. A previously executed business reengineering project selected two business processes for this goal: Processing of notifications of absence Approving purchase requisitions First you have to check the concept of the WebFlow Engine SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

37 Introduction Contents: Concept of the workflow at SAP Introduction to the workflow terminology Application examples Advantages of using the workflow SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

38 Introduction: Learning objectives At the end of this chapter: Understand the workflow concept at SAP Know the basic terminology of the WebFlow Engine Do you know the criteria according to which workflows can be used effectively. SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

39 Overview Diagram (3) Navigation Business Workplace Course Overview Workflow Architecture 3 Introduction Extension of SAP Workflows Organizational Structure Monitoring and Analysis SAP Workflows Review Customizing Appendix SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

40 Objectives of a reorganization of business processes Make processes transparent for those involved Increase employee responsibility Increase customer benefit Optimize process quality Improve added value of processes Workflow systems make it easier to achieve these objectives SAP AG 2003 As fundamental problems in the area of ​​office communication and organization are The following have been recognized in a large number of studies: - long throughput times - lack of process transparency - high division of labor with historically grown task assignments that result in friction losses - archives without secure and fast access to documents - inefficient and slow communication between those involved in the process The aim of the workflow management systems is comprehensive support for business processes, quick access to information and a significant reduction in throughput, idle and transport times. For the successful implementation of this reorganization of business processes, it is important that the company management actively supports the project. Each department must be actively involved in the development process. All employees should contribute their knowledge and experience. (C) SAP AG BIT

41 Workflow concept Workflow encompasses all aspects of the process: The process itself (business activity) The people involved (organization) The effects (process information) SAP AG 2003 Workflow management systems are information technology tools for the technological implementation of business process reengineering. They support and accelerate the handling of business processes. They enable the employees involved to process complex business processes at different times and at different locations. The workflow is subject to active control and coordination by the workflow management system. Control also includes, in particular, the time monitoring of individual work steps and the initiation of appropriate escalation procedures if deadlines are exceeded. It is also possible at any time to determine the current processing status (status) of a process. The functions of the WebFlow Engine integrate and complement the comprehensive business functions of the SAP system. The integration of the organizational management in the WebFlow Engine enables the linking of tasks with processors through an organizational assignment. (C) SAP AG BIT

42 Workflow concept: which processes are particularly suitable for the use of workflows? A workflow management system facilitates the electronic processing of structured processes that include a series of activities, always occur in a similar or identical form, involve several people or departments and require a high degree of coordination. Workflow management systems control processes according to a predefined model and are particularly suitable for structured organizations. SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

43 Workflow concept: What workflow is not ...Management of one-off processes Document management: Workflow can work with it Standard and groupware: Workflow can do much more data distribution across multiple systems: Workflow supports this option of ALE and EDI A tool for bridging gaps in functionality Screen sequence control in a transaction SAP AG 2003 The workflow can be missing Do not bridge SAP functionality. If you cannot perform a function manually, it cannot be performed using a workflow. The function must first be available in the program code, then it can be used with the workflow. (C) SAP AG BIT

44 Workflow: Advantages for the end user Access to information becomes faster and easier Administrative tasks are made easier Processes are easier to learn and understand SAP AG 2003 As soon as a task arises, it is delivered to the user in his or her electronic work basket (obligation to collect becomes the obligation of the system to bring it) All available information, explanations and instructions are provided to the user at the same time. The workflow branches automatically to the correct transactions in the SAP system. The workflow definition maps the business process or a sub-process. Insurance companies were likely one of the first areas to demonstrate the benefits of a seamless processing chain. Here clerks are responsible for customer acquisition, contract conclusion and support. This contradicts the basic principles of Taylorism, since the clerk has to carry out these tasks over several applications and functions. (C) SAP AG BIT

45 Workflow: Advantages for the company management Better control of information Deadlines Readiness for delivery Process costs Flexible change in the processes of the organizational structure of the underlying technology SAP AG 2003 Deadline monitoring is a means of process control. It is possible to initiate escalation procedures. For example, a company would like to Answer customer inquiries or generate an invoice one week after receiving an order. An escalation procedure can ensure that a specific employee is notified if the deadline is missed. A second form of escalation procedure allows any action to be taken after a deadline has been missed. The employee who is responsible for processing the object or for escalation procedures is determined automatically at runtime, either via the organizational structure or via role resolution. An employee could e.g. be responsible for auditing because he belongs to a certain department in organizational management. The responsible employee when an appointment is missed can also be determined, for example, via the role Find supervisor from. Since processors can be found by evaluating the organizational structure at runtime, the organization can be changed flexibly. The workflow will always determine the correct processor. It is not necessary to change the workflow. Process flows can change. The definition of the workflow can be adjusted in the Workflow Builder. With a new version of the workflow that needs to be drawn, the change will take effect. (C) SAP AG BIT

46 Workflow: Advantages for the company Increase in production Reduction of work backlogs Information and work distribution: Every user receives his worklist automatically from the system Process acceleration More frequent receipt of discounts Better / faster reaction to errors Increased customer satisfaction Faster processing of processes Better information flow SAP AG 2003 When ordering You can determine the current processing status - a function that is particularly important for customer service or answering customer inquiries. "Completed" data for processes that have already ended are still available. In this way you can identify weak points in the process and optimize the process. (C) SAP AG BIT

47 Arrange a business process as a workflow in SAP for a visit. Sales representative change customer base Adapt credit limit Event: Customer master record changed Coupling workflow / event change production plan Credit officer workflow New major customer starts follow-up steps / procedures Production Manager SAP AG 2003 The change in a customer master record can be used as an event to start a workflow automatically. Whenever a new customer with a large order volume is entered, a workflow is to start automatically, which runs through the three subsequent procedures. (C) SAP AG BIT

48 WebFlow Engine - Terminology Object Event Processor Step Task Rule Work Item Workflow Business Workplace (Inbox) SAP AG 2003 The workflow glossary is available to help you memorize the terminology. This glossary can be found in the appendix and in the online documentation. (C) SAP AG BIT

49 The five essential questions for any business process Who? By which?? What? When? In which order? SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

50 In what order? Workflow definition controls the business process consists of steps can be triggered by events SAP AG 2003 A workflow definition describes the business process to be mapped, e.g. the approval of vacation. A workflow definition consists of individual successive steps. A step describes exactly one action in the workflow. Examples: 1. Create an application 2. Check an application 3. Run through a loop for resubmission 4. Wait for the result of another process As the examples show, actions in the workflow can be control steps (examples 3 and 4). You can also refer to specific tasks that must be carried out by selected agents. (Examples 1 and 2) For example, the supervisor usually approves a vacation request. Each step type in the workflow has its own symbol to make the definition immediately legible. Workflows are usually triggered by events. These events are independent of the workflow, but must be actively linked to it. The data is automatically forwarded from workflow step to workflow step. The interface for this data flow is the workflow container. (C) SAP AG BIT

51 Workflow definition: Workflow Builder Workflow definition Triggering event Steps Workflow Builder: Navigation and display area Object area Message area Functions: Check, test and activate Symbol for workflow start and end SAP AG 2003 The Workflow Builder is the central tool of the WebFlow Engine . Among other things, it enables a workflow definition to be created, changed, tested and displayed. The Workflow Builder is an individual topic in the course BIT601. (C) SAP AG BIT

52 WHAT is done? Step Activity / Task Execute Transaction Execute Report Execute Function Module Execute Routine in an External System Update Spreadsheet Document Generation User Decision SAP AG 2003 This question relates to each individual activity / (task) to be executed. A task can execute a transaction, a report, a function module or a routine in an external system, update a spreadsheet or simply remind you that an action has to be carried out manually. For practical considerations and for reasons of consistency and reusability of the logic required to execute the transaction, report, etc., object-oriented techniques were used for programming (methods of business objects). Further information can be found in the workflow training courses BIT601 and BIT610. A task can be used as a small, independent workflow. An example of this is IDoc error handling, which is only about notifying someone that an error has occurred. If a task is to be carried out by a person, an agent must be assigned. At runtime, the task creates a work item in the processor's Business Workplace. This work item not only informs the agent that something has to be done, but also contains the necessary instructions and enables the work to be carried out directly from the work item. (C) SAP AG BIT

53 WHAT is used to do something: Examples of object types and methods SAP business object types Invoice Purchase requisition Material Archived documents EDI messages (IDocs) Documents from PC office applications Object methods Posting (of the invoice) Approval (of the request) Change (of the material) Display (of the picture) SAP AG 2003 Objects are any linked information that can only be accessed with an identification key. Objects are created at runtime and are the specific values ​​(instances) of a previously defined object type. Object types are the generic descriptions of an object. Object types are described and introduced by specifying their components in the Business Object Builder. The components of an object type include: - Attributes (features) of an object - Events (possible status changes) of an object - Methods (actions that can be carried out on the object) of an object. The WebFlow Engine uses the methods of an object type to model the individual process activities. (C) SAP AG BIT

54 WHAT is being carried out: Examples of tasks Posting an invoice Release a purchase requisition Change material master Approve vacation Create customer Delete purchase order Create requisition via the Internet SAP AG 2003 Tasks represent the steps in the business process. The process that is to be mapped must be divided into individual tasks when it is defined. Which tasks run in which order in a process is determined in the definition of the workflow. A task relates to exactly 1 object type of the Business Object Repository and to exactly 1 of its methods defined there. In exceptional cases a business process can only have 1 task. A workflow definition should also be created in this case. At the runtime of the workflow, a task is represented by a so-called work item. The work item appears in the recipient's inbox (C) SAP AG BIT

55 Task definition: possible agents WHO does something? Possible Processor Task Approve Blocked Order Sales Manager Task Create Order Sales Group Credit Clerk Task Define Credit Limit Possible Processor SAP AG 2003 The possible processors must be assigned to a task. This is the group of employees in your company who are professionally qualified to carry out this task. Create the possible agents under the menu item Additional data -> Maintain agent assignment. You can select in the definition and create a "general task" or create a link to an organizational object via . Every user in the system can carry out general tasks. You do not need to use HR to link to organizational objects. The functionality is delivered with the basic system. (C) SAP AG BIT

56 WHO carries out something: Workflow steps and responsible processor Process: Workflow definition Responsible processor Organization Org. Unit Job Position User ID Rule Supervisor of Expression Previous processor Business Workplace Prio Tasks Date Approve Form March 1, Re. book March 25th Re. Book April 5 Dynamic worklist with work items, the runtime representations of tasks. SAP AG 2003 When you include a task in a workflow definition, you define a workflow step. In this workflow step you can specify the responsible person. You can also explicitly exclude editors. The slide shows you the options for assigning agents in the step. At runtime, the system determines the overlap from the possible agents and the agents responsible. A check is then made for each user contained therein to determine whether they have not been excluded from the workflow step definition. If both checks are positive, the user receives a work item in his inbox and is one of the recipients of the work item (C) SAP AG BIT

57 WHO does something? Recipient of the work item Level Definition Task Level Definition Workflow step Level Runtime Approve request Possible processor: Head of FI department Mr Jones Head of SD department Mr Miller Head of CO department Ms Kosnig Used in approve request Responsible processor: Rule 168 determines the superior of the applicant Applicant: Mohn, FI Approval: Jones Applicant: Olsen, CO Approval: Kosnig Applicant: Straub, SD Approval: Miller Revise application Possible processor: all users of the system (general task) Used in revise application Responsible processor: printout Workflow initiator determines the Applicant Applicant: Mohn, FI Revise: Mohn Applicant: Olsen, CO Revise: Olsen Applicant: Straub, SD Revise: Straub SAP AG 2003 The aim of workflow-controlled processes is to be able to automatically determine the correct processor for a process step. For example, a vacation application should always be forwarded to the applicant's superior. Invoices to be posted should be sent to all employees who have a position as invoice receipt clerk. The WebFlow Engine enables this automatic agent determination by defining a number of possible agents for each individual task. Who is a possible processor depends on his function and competence. If an activity should be able to be carried out by all SAP users, so-called general tasks can be defined. The number of recipients can be dynamically restricted at the runtime of the workflow. For this purpose, the responsible agents are specified when defining the workflow step. You can use organizational management elements for this purpose, as well as assign rules or agents from previous steps. In the workflow step, processors can also be specified who are to be explicitly excluded from processing. All responsible agents determined in the workflow step, who are also possible agents of the task and are not explicitly excluded, receive the generated work item. (C) SAP AG BIT

58 WHEN is something carried out? Event Informs the system that something has happened A workflow can be started (triggering event) A work item can be ended (terminating event) Outcome shows the various results of a step Approved Waiting Rejected SAP AG 2003 Events inform the system that something is happening happened. The workflow can react to this if it is actively linked to the event. Events (e.g. purchase requisitions generated) are published in the system and can be evaluated by all existing workflows. An output is a possible result of a step. You can define your own reaction for each outcome in the workflow. Possible outcomes of the Approve application task can be: approved, rejected, revised. A work item can be ended by an event, an exception or a result of a method. In the workflow step, the possible outcomes are displayed in the Outcomes tab. Outputs can be deactivated, ie. modeling is no longer possible. The workflow then goes into an error state as soon as it reaches the exit. There is an event generator step type. There is a Waiting for event step type (C) SAP AG BIT

59 WHEN something is carried out: Examples of events Parked document posted Purchase requisition released Material master changed Vacation approved Customer created Purchase order deleted Requisition request created via Internet SAP AG 2003 Like the methods, the possible events are also defined as components of object types in the Business Object Builder. They describe the status changes of objects. The event is only defined in the business object repository. If the status of an object changes during process processing, the application must specifically trigger the associated event. Only then is the event known system-wide and a workflow can react to it. (C) SAP AG BIT

60 Assembling the picture ... The business process must ... Event ... be defined as a workflow in the SAP system Workflow Workflow definition Processor The individual activities in the process must be available as tasks before they can be included in the workflow definitions Task processor A task relates to an object type and one of its methods ... Object type method ... and thus enables access to existing SAP functionality! SAP AG 2003 Your business process can be converted into a workflow. The Workflow Builder is the tool for editing workflows. A workflow step can contain a task as an activity or it can be a control step. Processors are assigned to each task and step at the definition level. At runtime, the agent determination is used to determine the correct number of recipients of the work item. They receive the work item in their inbox. The recipient who then actually executes the work item calls up the functionality stored in the task. (C) SAP AG BIT

61 Workflow: Areas of application Workflows for optimizing the information flow Workflows for controlling simple processes Workflows for controlling complex processes Information flow - Notification of status changes - Notification of changes to sensitive data Document management - Early archiving - Form-based processes - Mapping of circulation slips Error / exception handling - Reaction to faulty EDIs - Follow-up process for deviations - Follow-up process with regard toCredit limit - Follow-up process when certain limit values ​​are reached Automatic system activities - Printing and sending reports - Automatic archiving - Automatic posting of data (see CATTs) Approval procedure - Purchase requisition - Parked invoices - Travel request Deadline monitoring Escalation procedure Automatic help - Help with customizing - Help in error situations Master data maintenance Integration of - Customer master - Material master General process support - Applicant management - Processing engineering change management Internet scenarios SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

62 Benefits of business process optimization with workflow Savings potential according to surveys 50-90% processing time 10-75% increase in production 20-40% reduction in processing costs per document 30-50% savings in office space Example: With document management supported by workflow, there is usually a return of Investment after 6-8 months SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

63 Introduction: Summary of the workflow The right work At the right time With the right person or who does, when, what, with what and in what order SAP AG 2003 (C) SAP AG BIT

64 Introduction: Exercises Chapter: Introduction Topic: Workflow Terminology At the end of this exercise you will be able to define the basic workflow terminology. You are one of the analysts in your company and plan to use a SAP system to support some business processes that are used by all employees in your company Company can be used. A previous business reengineering project has shown that two business processes are best suited for this project: Notifications of absence Purchase requisition approval For your project it is important that you first have a good command of the terminology. 1-1 Various people in your organization claim to be "experts" on workflows. In meetings, they make some statements on the subject. However, not all of these statements are true. Find out which of the following statements are true and which are false A The object type is created at runtime and is the specific instance of an object. Status changes of objects can serve as events A method is an operation that can be carried out on an object

65 1-2 You read a lot of documentation to prepare for your assignment. You will encounter a lot of workflow-specific terminology. You want to create a glossary of these terms to help your colleagues on the team. To do this, assign the correct definitions to the terms below. 1 Workflow Builder 2 Task 3 Object type 4 Workflow 5 Work item 6 Processor 7 Business Workplace User (dialog / background) who executes a work item Runtime term for a task Tool for defining a workflow Can be integrated into a workflow step The display of a business process in SAP Is described and introduced in the Object Repository. Here a user can find work items (C) SAP AG BIT

66 Introduction: Solutions Chapter: Introduction Topic: Workflow Terminology 1-1 Various people in your organization claim to be "experts" on workflows. In meetings, they make some statements about the topic. However, not all of these statements are accurate. You will find Find out which of the following statements are correct and which are incorrect An object type is created at runtime. It is the specific instance of an object. Incorrect Status changes of objects can serve as events. Correct A method is an operation that can be performed on an object. Correct (C) SAP AG BIT

67 1-2 You read a lot of documentation to prepare for your assignment. You will encounter a lot of workflow-specific terminology. You want to create a glossary of these terms to help your colleagues on the team. To do this, assign the correct definitions to the terms below. 1 Workflow Builder 2 Task 3 Object type 4 Workflow 5 Work item 6 Processor 7 Business Workplace User (dialog / background) who executes a work item Runtime term for a task Tool for defining a workflow Can be integrated into a workflow step The display of a Business process in SAP Is described and introduced in the Object Repository. Here a user will find work items 7 (C) SAP AG BIT

68 Organizational structure Contents: Organizational management Simple maintenance Organizational unit, position, owner HR person and SAP user SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

69 Organizational Structure: Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter you can: Create an organizational structure with all the components required for workflow. The two options describe how to combine organizational structures with workflow. SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

70 Overview Diagram (4) Navigation Business Workplace Course Overview Workflow Architecture Introduction Extension of SAP Workflows 4 Organizational Structure Monitoring and Analysis SAP Workflows Review Customizing Appendix SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

71 Organizational structure: Business scenario HR has created a current organizational structure for your company. The WebFlow Engine evaluates organizational structures and can thus determine recipients for the individual work items. You must establish the connection between the organizational structure and your workflow. SAP AG 2002 (C) SAP AG BIT

72 Organizational structure: positions and positions Example of SAP HR terminology based on the job advertisement in a newspaper Anchorage Times, job market Smith Consulting has 3 vacancies for SAP FI consultants with AR experience in - Credit Management - Cash Management "Positions" to be filled Knowledge Activities Smith Consulting Sales department in Hawaii FI department in Anchorage Head of position Owner: Heinz AR-Consultant position 1 AR-consultant position 2 AR-consultant position 3 AR-position Task list position - credit management - cash management - invoice verification -... SAP AG 2002 Company finance director John Smith has a budget to hire 3 FI specialists for his team in Anchorage. Each of these three new employees is assigned an individual position in a SAP organizational unit diagram. From this point of view - a part of the budget for wages and benefits is required for the position. - the position corresponds to a physical work center. The work that is done by these three employees is described by an activity list with accounts receivable tasks. - Each of these activities is a task in SAP terminology. A job in SAP terminology contains a whole list of tasks - to reduce the administrative burden in HR, you can assign a job to a position. - In this way, the entire task list for the job is also assigned to the position. (C) SAP AG BIT

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